persian religionline of the Persians

persian religionline of the Persians BC Dayaukku/Deoces founds the Median dynasty

Abu lAbbas Safh, whose army is led by the Persian general Abu Muslim Khorasani, replaces the Umayyad dynasty with the Abbasid dynasty

The Ottomans conquer Tabriz, Armenia and Georgia from Iran

May The first oil well is drilled in the Middle East Iran by a British company

Jun Khomeini dies and is replaced by Khamenei as supreme leader, while Rafsanjani wins the presidency over Montazeri

terrorists backed by Libya blow up a Pan Am plane over Scotland killing people probably on behalf of Iran

the Sunni group Jundullah kills members of the security forces on a highway outside Zahedan, Iran

Jan An antiKhomeini article causes widespread antigovernment demonstrations during which dozens of people are killed by the police

The great mosque of Ishan is completed

Jun The shah Muhammad Ali crushes an insurrection with help from Russia and suspends the constitution

BC Pergamum conquers the Seleucid lands of Lydia, Phrygia, Lycaonia, Pisidia

Dec Popular protests erupt in Mashad and then spread to other cities after a leak reveals that the government spends billions of dollars on military and clerical agencies

BC Alexander invades the Persian empire from Syria to Palestine

Qassem Suleimanis alQuds funds and arms the Shiite militias in Iraq like the Mahdi Army to fight the USA

Ismail I conquers Baghdad and massacres Sunni Muslims

Iran grants Britain a monopoly on tobacco but the population rises in protest

Turkey, Iraq, Pakistan, Iran and Britain sign the Baghdad Pact that de cto asserts British influence in the Middle Eastagainst the Soviet Union

Iran opens a national bank under German management

BC King UntashNapirisha of Elam founds a new capital at Chogha Zanbil

Fath Ali dies and his grandson Muhammad, with help from Britain and Russia, becomes shah of Iran and appoints his Sufi master Hajji Mirza Aqasi as prime minister, thus rehabilitating Sufism against the opposition of the ulema

BC Artaxerxes V dies, last of the Achaemenians

BC Xerses, king of Persia, invades Greece and wins the battle of Thermopylae, but is defeated at the naval battle of Salamis because the Greeks employ the ster trireme boats

The Savids capture Baghdad from the Ottomans and begin a year war

The Iranian Tunneling Association is founded in Iran

Mahmoud Khan of Persia is murdered by his cousin Ashraf

the Ottomans capture Baghdad from the Savids

Qassem Suleimani is appointed to lead the alQuds force of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards

Feb Fereydoon Abbasi Davani is appointed to lead Irans nuclear program

BC Achaemenes founds the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia in Anshan, subject to Media

The shah bans all political parties except the Iranian Peoples Resurence Party of prime minister Hoveyda

the Ottomans capture Baghdad from the Savids, helped by a popular insurrection of the Sunnis, but the Savids survive in eastern Iran, Azerbajan and the southern Caucasus

BC Daiukku founds the new capital of the Medians/Persians at Hakmataneh/Ecbatana Hamadan

Ahmad Shah Duran, the Afghan commander of Nadirs bodyguard, proclaims himself the ruler of Afghanistan with capital in Kandahar and founds the Durrani dynasty

Mahmud Ghazni dies and the Ghaznavid empire declines

BC Batrian king Demetrios I expands Bactria to northwestern India

Ardashir, descendant of the priest Sassan, seizes the throne of Persia/Parthia, ends the Arsacid dynasty, and becomes the first Sassanid king with capital in Istakhr near Persepolis and Zoroastrianism as the official religion

Shapur I becomes king of the Sassanids and attacks Rome

Portugal conquers the port of Comorao Bandar Abbas to control trade in the Persian Gulf

the shah Reza Pahlevi of Iran introduces a series of reforms including womens suffrage called white revolution

BC Darius makes Aramaic the official language of the Persian empire

BC the Parthians under Phraates II are defeated by the Scythians

Jul Iran signs a deal limiting its nuclear program in return for the United Nations to remove economic sanctions

BC Alexander the Great conquers Persia and destroys Persepolis, ending the Achaemenid dynasty

BC Alexander the Great dies at Babylon and his empire is carved into three empires Cassander rules over Greece and Macedonia, Lysimachus rules over Thracia and Asia Minor, Ptolemy rules over Egypt, Judea, Syria, Mesopotamia and India

the Buyid shah Adud Dawla conquers Baghdad and seizes effective control of the caliphate from the Abbasids

BC Median king Cyaxares moves the capital to Ecbatana Hamadan

Karim Khan of the Zand tribe wins the civil war in Iran/Persia and eslishes the Zand dynasty

the turkicspeaking Qara Quyunlu dynasty moves its capital to Tabriz

Dec A suicide bomber of the antiIranian group Jundaliah kills four people in Iran

Roman emperor Trajan defeats the Parthian king Vologezes III and conquers Mesopotamia, including the Parthian capital Ctesiphon

Sadr alDin, Safis son, claims to be a descendant of the founder of Islam, Mohammed

the Ghaznavids of Afghanistan defeat the Samanids of Persia in Khurasan and the Qarakhanids seize Bukhara

P increases yearly on average through the mid s

Feb Two Russian hitmen kill Morteza Gholi Khan Sanioddoleh

BC the Persian kind Darius invades Scythia

Savid ruler Abbas dies and is succeeded by Abbas II that continues his construction projects

the Ghaznavid kingdom is founded in Afghanistan at Ghazni by Alptegin, a Turkic slave soldier of the Samanids

Dec Two suicide bombers of the Sunni Muslim group Jundollah kill people in southeastern Iran during a Shiite ceremony in retaliation for the execution of the groups leader

the Mongols invade Transoxania Bukhara and Samarkand and Iran/Persia

Two million people die in Iran in three years of mine

Over of Irans foreign trade is with Germany

Feb Cossack general Reza Khan seizes power in Iran with a coup and becomes war minister

Britain and Russia sign a treaty Convention of St Petersburg iding Iran, Central Asia and Afghanistan into respective spheres of influence

A train accident kills people in Iran

Mani is crucified by the Sassanids for tring to incorporate Judaism, Christianity and Zoroastrianism into one religion manicheism

BC Darius of Persia attacks Thrace and Macedonia but the fleet is destroyed by a storm before it can reach Athens

Shahpur I eslishes the library of Jondi Shahpur, one of the largest in the world

Nov An explosion kills Hassan Moqqadam, the head of Irans missile program

BC Cambyses of Persia conquers Egypt at the battle of Pelusium

Dec Marziyeh Vahid Dastjerdi, the only female minister in years of Irans Islamic republic, is removed from office after a dispute with president Ahmadinejad

BC Darius of Persia expands the Persian empire beyond the Indus River

the turkicspeaking Qara Quyunlu dynasty eslishes itself over northwestern Iran

BC Artaxerxes III Ochus becomes king of Persia

Pahlavi, the language of Persia, is reformed according to the Arabic script

the Zayids do not recognize the imam Baqir and cause a split within the shiites

BC Artaxerxes III destroys Sidon that has revolted and invades Egypt

BC the game of chess shatranj develops in Persia

Jul About two thirds of Iraqs counterterrorism missions are aimed at Iranianbacked militias

Iran is accused by the USA of trying to build a nuclear weapon and accepts to stop enriching uranium

the Sassanid king Khusro II launches a new attack against Byzantium

Feb Sunni militants kill people in Irans Baluchi region

Seven emperors are raised to the throne of Iran in four years

the Sassanids sign a peace treaty with Rome

the Arabs capture Ctesiphon, the last Sassanid is assassinated in Merv and the Sassanid empire ends

Agha Mohammad Qajar of a Turkic tribe a former slave who had been castrated defeats the Zand and creates his own kingdom with capital in Tehran

the turkicspeaking Qara Quyunlu under Jahanshah conquer Shiraz

Kublai Khan dies and the empire fragments in khanates, one of them being the Ilkhanate, descendants of Hulegu, with capital in Tabriz

Jan Muzafr dies and his proRussian son Muhammad Ali becomes the new shah of Iran

Portugal conquers the port of Hormuz to control trade in the Persian Gulf

the Sassanids capture Egypt from Byzantium

The Shaybanid dynasty seizes Transoxania

Nov Iranian nuclear scientist Majid Shahriari is killed and Fereydoon Abbasi Davani is wounded

the Mongol leader Hulegu assumes the title of Ilkhan as ruler of Persia

Ismail dies having united Iran/Persia and most of Afghanistan

Jun Hassan Rouhani is elected president of Iran but real power remains in the hands of ayatollah Ali Khameini

Sep For the first time since the president of the USA and the president of Iran speak on the phone

A railway opens connecting the Caspian Sea to the Persian Gulf

Sep Irans first nuclear plant goes into operation

Collapse of the Shaybanid dynasty in Transoxania, replaced by the Astrakhanid dynasty

AntiUSA conservative politician Mahmoud Ahmadinejad a former member of the Revolutionary Guard wins presidential elections in Iran, refuses to dismantle Irans nuclear program and calls for the destruction of Israel

Sayyid Ali Muhammad proclaims himself to be the Bab and later the Mahdi, the manifestation of the th imam and starts a new religion

Hezbollah suicide commandos organized by Iran blow up the US and French barracks killing marines and French soldiers

the Hezbollah is founded by a radical shiite group with the mission of creating an Iranian Islamic republic in Lebanon

Britain and Iran ally at the Treaty of London

Oil developing countries Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela found the OPEC

Iran opens the first public school for girls

the Persian mathematician Khwarazmi founds Algebra and invents the Arabix numerals

Nasir alDin is assassinated by a follower of Jaman alDin alAfghani and Muzafr alDin becomes the new Iranian shah

Dec One million people demonstrate in Tehran against the shah

Aug The year old Reza Shah Pahlevi ascends to the throne of Iran when his ther is deposed by British and Soviet troops for refusing to expel the many German advisors, and Iran becomes the main transit point for supplies going to the Soviet Union

Jun ISIS attacks kill people at Tehrans parliament and Khomeini mausoleum

Oct The USA foils a plot by the Iranian Islamic Revolutionary Guards to assassinate the Saudi ambassador to the USA and to bomb the embassy of Saudi Arabia in the USA

the Mamluks stop the Mongols in Syria and annex Syria

Mohammad Mossadegh becomes prime minister of Iran and nationalizes the AngloIranian Oil Company

Dec The price of oil reaches . per barrel, almost four times what it was a year earlier

BC Ptolemys general in Syria, Seleucus Nicator, declares himself satrap of Babylon

Feb The first train to connect China and Iran takes days through Kazakstan and Turkmenistan

Reza Khan appoints himself as Shah of Persia, the Qajar dynasty ends and the Pahlavi dynasty begins, with a program of economic and cultural Westernization with a secular educational system

Qasem Soleimani leads Irans efforts to help Assad of Syria against the rebels

the Persians/Sassanids conquer Dura Europus in Mesopotamia

The Saviyya master Shaykh Junayd transforms the Sufi order into a military movement and fights Christians in Georgia and Trebizond

Iranian reformist leader Saeed Hajjarian is almost killed in an assassination attempt

The Ottomans of Selim I defeat Shah Ismail I Savid army at Chaldiran Iran/Persia thereby conquering Kurdistan and Armenia

Byzantine troops destroy the fire temples of Persia in revenge for the Persian desecration of Jerusalem

Jul A revolution led by Najaf Quli Khan deposes the shah and restores the constitution

The exiled National Council of Resistance reveals that Iran is building a network of tunnels to connect secret nuclear weapon sites

BC the Kushan eslish their capital in Kabul

BC the Parni invade the satrapy of Parthia northern Iran and found the Parthian empire with capital in Ctesiphon near Seleucia and Arsaces as ruler founder of the Arsacid dynasty

BC Seleucus is murdered by the king of Thracia and is succeeded by his son Antiochus who transfers the capital to Antiochia

The Savids take Hormuz from the Portuguese with help from the British

BC the Parthians under Aranus II are defeated again by the Scythians and Mithridates II succeeds Aranus II as king of Parthia

Iranian/Persian general Nadir Shah invades India and sacks Delhi, stealing the Peacock Throne and the Kohinoor diamond

A raid on a Teheran student dormitory by Iranian police and rightwing vigilantes triggers student riots

the Sassanids capture Jerusalem from Byzantium

Ishan has mosques, colleges, caravansaries, public baths

Nadirs Persian army defeats the Ottomans and regains Armenia, Georgia and Tabriz

BC Cyrus of Persia sacks Babylon and frees the Jews

Persian king Firuz persecutes Jews, who emigrate to Arabia

Aug Show trials of opposition leaders are broadcast live on television in Iran in the biggest purge since the founding of the Islamic Republic

Sep Russia and China are the only countries to support Syrias crackdown on dissidents while even Syrias ally Iran distances itself from Assads regime

Mani, a thinker from Ecbatana, begins to preach in SeleuciaCtesiphon

Shaykh Safi alDin, of Kurdish descent, founder of the Savid dynasty, founds a Sunni Sufi order in Uzbekistan, the Saviyya

Irans ayatollahs outlaw most of the opposition candidates so that parliamentary elections are won by the conservative party

Iranian/Persian general Nadir Kuli of northeastern Iran expels the Afghans and reinstates the Savids to power

Khusro I ascends to the Sassanid throne and is influenced by Mazdakism

students demonstrate in Teheran against the Iranian regime, helped by USAbased television stations and by radio stations run by Iranian exiles

BC Darius Codomannus becomes king of Persia

Jun supporters of opposition leader Mir Hossein Moussavi protest against rigged elections in Iran won by incumbent Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

The last Savid dies and Nadir proclaims himself the new shah of Iran/Persia

Iran introduces a law code that replaces Islamic shariia

BC Zarathustra forms a new religion in Persia

Savid king Shah Abbas I creates a gunpowderbased military force with a slave army and economic revival

Zoroastran Persia and Christian Armenia sign a treaty that allows the Armenians to keep their religion

Zoroastran Persia Sassanids defeats Christian Armenia

BC Ionian cities revolt against Persian domination

the last Persian Seljuq ruler dies and Seljuq power collapses in Iran

Khusrau II is assassinated by his troops while the Romans retake Syria from the Sassanids

The Astrakhanid dynasty is replaced by the Mangit dynasty in Bukhara

BC Cyrus Achaemenian defeats Astyages, emperor of the Medes, conquers its capital Ecbatana Hamadan, and unifies Media and Elam in the Persian empire

Nadir Shah is assassinated and Iran/Persia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Afghanistan disintegrate

BC Darius founds the new capital of Persia, Persepolis

The border with Turkmenistan reopens after years

the Safrids shiite in eastern Persia become virtually independent

BC king Ashurbanipal of Assyria raids the Elamite capital Susa in Persia

Ardashir I Sassanid defeats Aranus V, last Parthian ruler, and moves the capital to Ctesiphon

the Ottoman empire conquers Mesopotamia from the Savid empire with the Peace of Amasya

Russia invades Iran from the north Baku and the Ottomans invade from the west

BC the Akkadian empire is destroyed by the Guti, who invade from the north, and the Elamites of Susa regain their independence

PanIslamic activist Jaman alDin alAfghani returns to Iran from the Ottoman land

Abu Bakr, one of Mohammeds followers and the first Muslim caliph prophets successor, quells upheavals throughout Arabia and declares war on the Roman and Persian Sassanid empires

Afghanistan gains independence from Britain

The exiled National Council of Resistance reveals that Iran is building a secret underground nuclear plant at Natanz

the Seljuks defeats the Buyids, invade Mesopotamia and install themselves in Baghdad under the suzerainty of the Abbasids

BC a treaty between Rome and the Parthians fixes the boundary between the two empires along the Euphrates river Iraq

BC Cambyses dies and civil War erupts in Persia

Iran Persia loses the Caucasus Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan to Russian Treaty of Turkmanchay

BC Darius invades mainland Greece to punish Athens but loses at the battle of Marathon

BC Seleucus defeats and kills Lysimachus and thereby conquers Asia Minor

the Sassanid intellectual Mazdak advocates the abolition of private property, the ision of wealth, nonviolence and vegetarianism

BC Cyrus Achaemenian unifies Elam, and moves the capital of the Achaemenids to Susa

Russia invades the northern provinces of Iran and forces Iran to dissolve parliament and to restore the power of the shah

BC Shalmaneser II, King of Assyria, defeats the Medes, who rule in Persia

BC Diodotos, a Macedonian ruler of the satrapy of Bactria Afghanistan, declares its independence from the Seleucids

a missile fired by a US warship downs an Iranian civilian airplane and kills all passengers aboard

Feb Reformists allied with Rouhani make huge gains in the Assembly of Experts

a first dynasty creates the Elamite kingdom non Semitic in western Persia with capital in Susa

BC the Parthians led by Orodes II defeat the Romans at Carrhae Syria

BC the Medians/Persians defeat the Scythians

Aug Oil prices ll below a barrel for first time since

BC Darius dies and Xerxes becomes king of Persia

the USA accuses Iran of helping insurgents kill USA soldiers in Iraq

Shapur II died after conquering Arabia and reaching the border with China

BC Bactria declares independence from the Seleucids

the Arabs force the Persians to abandon the Pahlavi alphabet in vor of the Arabic script

BC Artaxerxes II Mnemon becomes king of Persia and loses Egypt

BC Khshathrita/ Phraortes unites the Median tribes and expels the Assyrians from northeastern Iran

the Zoroastrian high priest Tanar eslishes the canon of the Avesta

Dec The first democratically elected parliament in Iran approves a parliamentary constitution and appoints Morteza Gholi Khan Sanioddoleh as leader of the parliament

Britain and the Soviet Union withdraw from Iran

Iraq Saddam Hussein attacks Iran Khomeini

Abdolmalek Rigi founds the Sunni terrorist group Jundullah to fight against the Iranian regime

BC Tiridates leads the Parthians to independence from the Seleucids

the Samanids defeat the Safrids and expand their empire to Persia but adopt the Persian language

Apr Sunni rebeles of Jaishul Adl kill Iranian border guards

Shah Ismail I a year old boy from the northwest who claims to be the hidden imam, a descendant of the seventh imam, a reincarnation of Khird, the mahdi and the spirit of Jesus and even assimilates legends from Buddhism and Zoroastrianism founds the Savid dynasty and declares Twelveer Shiism as the state religion persecuting Sunni Muslims

Savid ruler Abbas II orders the forced conversion of Jews

BC the Babylonians, led by king Nabopolassar, and their allies the Medes, led by Cyaxares, destroy the Assyrian capital of Nineveh as well as Nimrud and split the Assyrian empire Mesopotamia to Babylon and Elam to Media while Egypt recovers control of Palestine and Syria

Iran hires the US economist Arthur Millspaugh to run its finances

BC the Seleucids under Antiochus III conquer Palestine and Phoenicia from the Ptolemaics

the Sassanid king Shapur II defeats the Roman emperor Julian and recapture Nisibis and Armenia

BC Parthians under Priapatius expand into Seleucid eastern Iran

The English East India Company acquires rights to trade freely in Iran

Mohammad Khatami, a reformist, is elected president of Iran, but the ayatollahs still control the army

Ali Khamenei is appointed president of Iran

BC Darius becomes king of Persia and ides Persia into satrapies

BC the Kushan Yuezhi, nomadic tribes expelled from China by the Hsiungnu Huns, overthrow the kingdom of Bactria and pushes the Scythians south to Iran and India

Jan Iranian nuclear scientist Mosta AhmadiRoshan is assassinated

Ottoman Empire and Iran sign a peace treaty defining their borders

BC Mithraism an offshoot of Zoroastrianism that worships Ahura Mazda as the sole and creator god is born in Bactria

the turkicspeaking Timur overthrow the Chaghatai khanate and conquers Iran Persia, the old Ilkhanate, eslishing his capital in Samarkand

the Khwarazmis conquer Persia from the Seljuqs

The Turkicspeaking Aq Quyunlu dynasty takes control of most of Persia from the Timurids

the Sarid ruler Yaqub Leys revolts against the Arabs and unifies most of Persia

Mar Irans Suleimani helps arrange a ceasefire between the Iraqi Army and the Mahdi Army

BC Bactrian king Menander invades northwestern India

BC Artaxerxes I Longimanus becomes king of Persia

The price of oil is per barrel, double the price of

Sep A bomb kills ten people in northwest Iran

Babists try to assassinate the shah and are massacred throughout Iran, they move to Ottoman Palestine and found the Bahai ith

Mar Sunni militants kill people in Irans Baluchi region

the turkicspeaking Timur overthrow the Chaghatai khanate and conquers Iran Persia, the old Ilkhanate, eslishing his capital in Samarkand

The Astrakhanid dynasty collapses and Uzebkistan and Turkmenistan are absorbed into Iran/Persia

a raid on a Teheran student dormitory by Iranian police and rightwing vigilantes triggers student riots

Sep The USA, Britain and France discover that Iran has built a secret uraniumenrichment cility near Qum

Husain Ali Montazeri and Hashimi Rafsanjani compete for power in Irans parliament

BC Ionian cities helped by Athens sack Sardis but are beaten at the Battle of Ephesus

the USAs and the British secret services engineer a coup to remove Irans prime minister Mohammad Mossadegh, and the USA replaces Britain as the main player in the Middle East

the Buyids shiite descend from the Caspian Sea, and invade Abbasid Persia

Russia and Iran go to war over the Caucasus

Agha Mohammad Qajar conquers all of Iran/Persia

Mohammed I ibn Malikshah dies and the Seliuq empire breaks up into independent kingdoms in Iran, Iraq, Syria and Anatolia

The Middle East produces only of the worlds oil

There are more university students from Iran than any other nationality in the USA

Oct people including several members of Irans Revolutionary Guards are killed in a suicide bombing in the Baluchi region by Sunni group Jundallah

Jan Iranian physicist Massoud Ali Mohammadi is assassinated

the Sassanid queen Purandokht signs a peace treaty with Byzantium

Sibovayh, a Persian scholar, codifies the Arabic grammar and writes the first Arabic dictionary

BC the Parthians of Mithradates I conquer Media and Elam from the Seleucids, while Edessa becomes decto independent

the Sassanid king Khusro I dies and is succeeded by Khusro II

Britain organizes the AngloIranian Oil Company to exploit the Iranian oil fields

Apr Iran signs a nuclear deal with the world powers

Iran grants Baron DeReuter railway monopoly, mining rights and control of customs revenues

Dec The Iranian rial drops to its lowest level ever against the dollar due to increased sanctions by the USA

Muhammad dies and the years old prince Nasir alDin becomes shah of Iran with help from Britain

Britain invades Afghanistan which becomes, de cto, a British colony

Abu Said dies and the Ilkhanate disintegrates

the war between Iraq and Iran that has cost about one million lives ends with no winner

Iran begins an economic recovery during which P per capite will increase fives times in years

Apr Iranian intelligence agents murder four Iranian Kurds in Germany

Mohammed I ibn Malikshah dies and the Seliuq empire breaks up into independent kingdoms in Iran, Iraq, Syria and Anatolia Rum

Adud Dawla of the Buyid dynasty adopts the Persian imperial title shah

BC defeated by Ptolemy III Euergetes, the Seleucid empire loses eastern lands to the Parthians and to Pergamum

the Sassanid king Khusro I builds the Palace of the Great Arch in Ctsiphon

The first public school for girls opens in Iran

Iraq uses chemical weapons against Iranian troops

BC Seleucus grants Punjab and Afghanistan to Chandragupta Maurya

the Seljuqs move their capital to Baghdad

BC the Scythians invade the Median empire northeast Persia

Feb Iran becomes a theocratic republic led by the ayatollah Khomeini with a strong antiUSA posture Islamic Revolution and strict Islamic laws girls can legally be forced into marriage at the age of

the Mongols destroy the Abbasid caliphate of Baghdad killing , people including the last Abbasid caliph, conquer Persia, Mesopotamia and Syria and eslishing an Ilkhanate with capital in Baghdad

An AngloIranian treaty turns Iran into a decto protectorate of Britain

Iran cancels DeReuters concessions under pressure from the religious eslishment

Iran and the Ottomans sign the treaty of Erzurum

Irans population is about million and Tehran has about , people

Two women are elected to Irans parliament

Sebaktigin, king of the Ghaznavid kingdom, invades northern India and Central Asia

the Sassanid king Khusrau II is defeated by Roman emperor Heraclius at Niniveh

BC The Greeks defeat the Persians at the battle of Plataea and expel the Persians from Europe

Mahmoud Khan, an Afghan chieftain, revolts against the Savids, invades Iran/Persia and captures Ishan, thus ending the Savid dynasty

Britain defeats Iran at Herat in Afghanistan

Iranian cleric Hoseyn Ali Montazeri criticizes Ali Khameinis dictatorship and is placed under house arrest

The Ottomans and the Savids sign the Treaty of Zuhab that returns Mesopotamia to the Ottomans and gives the Caucasus to Iran

the Seljuks, led by Toghrul Beg, defeat the Ghaznavids near Merv and invade Persia, moving their capital to Ishan

Agha Mohammad Qajar is murdered by his servants and succeeded by his nephew Fath Ali, who suppresses the Sufi order in Iran

BC Alexander defeats the Persian army at the Dardanelles

Agha Mohammad Qajar crowns himself shah, thus terminating the Zand dynasty and founding the Qajar dynasty, and unifies Iran/Persia, Uzebkistan and Turkmenistan with rsi as the official language and Shiite Islam as the official religion

Shaykh Murtada/Morteza Ansari is recognized as the spiritual leader of all Shiites, the first time that religious leadership is concentrated in one person

BC the Seleucids under Antiochus III are defeated by the Romans in Thracia

Oct Sunni rebels kill Iranian guards on the border with Pakistan and Iran retaliates by hanging prisoners

the Persian astronomer Nasir AlDin Tusi builds the Maraghah observatory

AD Kanishka, king of the Kushan, enlarges the kingdom from Bactria into Uzbekistan, Kashmir, Punjab, moves the capital to Peshawar and promotes Buddhism instead of Zoroastrianism

May Iran blames the Sunni group Jundullah for a suicide attack on a mosque of Zahedan that kills people

Russia conquers Samarkand and Bukhara in Uzbekistan

Savid king Shah Abbas I moves the capital to Ishan

BC Bactrian king Euthydemus defeats Seleucid king Antiochus III at Magnesia

The Savids conquer Comorao Bandar Abbas from Portugal

BC Seleucus Nicator eslishes a kingdom ranging from Syria in the west to India in the east and founds the Seleucid dynasty with capital in Seleucia Iraq

BC the Parthians under Aranus II conquer Babylonia from the Seleucids, who now control only Syria

Ghazan, the Ilkhan, converts to Shia Islam, and the Ilkhanate becomes a sultanate

Iran loses the war against Russia and recognizes Russian rule over Georgia and Azerbajan Treaty of Gulistan

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