persian cultureGreece culture and Persian culture

Common people or ordinary citizens of Rome, whose tribunes gained political power in struggle against the patricians

Eslished by Cyrus the Great by BCE;across northern ME into NW india;advanced iron technology;dev new religionZoroastrianism;conquered by Alexander the Great; later becomes the Sassanid Empire

Sparta and Athens two leading citystates who fought against each other in the Peloponnesian Wars, which weakened Greek citystates and left them vulnerable to outside invasion by Philip of Macedonia and later his son Alexander the Great

Three devastating conflicts between Romans and Carthaginians over political and commercial supremacy in the western Mediterranean regions fought between and BCE. The rivalry ended after Roman forces razed the city of Carthage, salted the surrounding earth to render it unfit for agriculture and settlement and forced many of the survivors into slavery

Greek art and culture merged w/ other Middle eastern forms;name derived b/c Greeks known as Hellenes; Hellenistic period saw the consolidation of Greek civ even after the political decline of the peninsula itself

Jews, Semitic, who developed st monotheistic religion w/ single God, Jehovah;Judaism served later as key basis for both Christianity and Islam

One of the most important poleis citystates of classical Greece, known for its democratic politics, commercial agriculture and skills off foreign trade

Greek philosopher, great pupil of Socrates; lived from to BCE; believed that human reason or knowledge could arrive at an understanding of what he called Forms or Ideasthe ultimate perfect reality he thought underlay nature; suggested the ideal form of government ruled by a philosopherking

Hereditary aristocrats and wealthy classes of the Roman republic who dominated Roman political and economic life, electing an assembly who selected two consuls and serving as members of the Senate, an advisory body to the consuls

Mediterranean people who developed first coined money

Written by Plato, held that the ideal state was one where either philosophers ruled as kings or kings were themselves philosophers

Sparta and Athens, Greeces two strongest citystates, cooperated to defeat a huge Persian invasion. Immediately after this period, Athens was at its cultural

Title given to Octavian after his defeat of the navy of Mark Antony in BCE; the creator of first emperor of the Roman empire

Alliance formed by several Greek poleis after the Persian war, Athens became the leader of the alliance, and other poleis contributed financial support, which went largely to the Athenian treasury

One of the most important poleis in classical Greece, located in the fertile southeastern region of the Peloponnesus; known for its oligarchic regime, austere life and commitment to military values

Greek philosopher; Platos pupil and teacher of Alexander of Macedon; believed that philosophers could rely on their senses to provide accurate information about the world and then depend on reason to sort out its mysteries; devised rigorous rules of logic as means of constructing compelling arguments

Historian refer to the age of Alexander and his successors as the Hellenistic eraan age when Greek cultural traditions expanded their influence beyond Greece itself Hellas to a much larger world

Civil war of the Greek world, fought between and BCE. Poleis were ided into two armed camps under the leadership of Athens and Sparta. Resulted in Athens unconditional surrender to Sparta, but the latter iled to achieve political unification of Greece

Aristotle foundation of Western scientific thought

Citystates of classical Greece. The term polis originally referred to a citadel or fortified site that offered refuge for local communities during times of war or other emergencies. By about BCE these sites developed into urban centers and extended their authority over surrounding regions. Poleis the plural of polis functioned as the principal centers of Greek society between and BCE

Athenian philosopher who lived from to BCE; tutor of Plato; encouraged rational reflection on moral and ethical issues; sought to reason through means of skeptical questioning of traditional ethical teachings. A jury of Athenian citizens condemned him to death for corrupting the minds of Athenian youths

Son of Philip of Macedonia who defeated the Greek citystates of Athens and Sparta, extending Macedonian Empire thru the ME, across Persia and into NW India

Developed alphabet w/ letters became predecessor of Greek and Latin alphabetsSemitic speaking people who lived between the Mediterranean and the mountains of Lebanon. By BCE they dominated trade in the Mediterranean basin. Between and BCE the Phoenicians eslished colonies in Cyprus, Sicily, Spain and North Africa

Nephew of the general Marius, and himself a reformminded general of Rome, responsible for conquest of Gaul in the s of the st century BCE; brought his army back to Rome and overthrew the republic in BCE; claimed himself a lifetime dictator in BCE but was assassinated by the wealthy elite class in BCE

Jew from Anatolia who zealously preached Christianity throughout the Roman empire; called for iniduals to observe high moral standards and to place their ith ahead of personal and mily interest; promised a glorious future existence for those who conscientiously observed the ith. He was executed by Roman authorities

Word is derived from the Greek demos the people; a direct democracy in which all citizens could participatechosen by lot, women could not participate in political activity; / of all males were not citizens because slaves or foreigners

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