Achaemenid Persian persian empireEmpire?

Achaemenid Persian persian empireEmpire?Last edited Mon Jul , am Total Number of Edits

Literally, the rise Id say is covered inChariot Lords, where they turn up near the end. Its about as grand strategic as you can get.

I was soloing a game ofSuccessorslast night and I thought that map was close to what I needed. It also gave me some ideas of the relative complexity Im aiming for. Once I get some time Ill try to develop that further.

I have a bad feeling that even if there is nothing like what Im looking for out there, this thread may still end up costing me money

As for the Persians being the bad guys, consider this they authorized the rebuilding of the Jewish Temple because they recognized, in the Jews, the only other monotheistic people in that part of the world.

This game covers only the persian civil war of , but the map, counters and system can be easily adapted to what you are looking for with a few home rules.

. The Persians are represented as a minor power, but some tinkering might just work.

This game covers only the persian civil war of , but the map, counters and system can be easily adapted to what you are looking for with a few home rules.

I was wondering if there was a game starting with Cyrus the Great and covering the formation of the Empire. Or even formation and decline at the hands of the Greeks, but from the perspective of the Persians.

Last edited Mon Jul , pm Total Number of Edits

This sounds like a great theme for a game. The rise of the Persian Empire was a remarkable achievement in the ancient world.

Yeah, I have this one. Its strategic enoughbut its not really what Im seeking.

To be clear here, Im speaking of a strategic level game. No inidual battles or campaigns. Does something like this exist?

Potentially you can also use something likeBarbarian, Kingdom Empire

As for the Persians being the bad guys, consider this they authorized the rebuilding of the Jewish Temple because they recognized, in the Jews, the only other monotheistic people in that part of the world.

what Im looking for and I dont speak Greek, but very interesting nonetheless. I didnt know about this one at all. Thanks.

I am called Huginn…, or is it Muninn…, I forget…

In the West they are generally portrayed as The Bad Guys, mostly Im guessing because of the GraecoPersian Wars of the thth centuries BC. But their Empire was a remarkable achievement and it didnt create itself. I find myself wondering if this subject has been covered in any existing game.

Through the Ages A New Story of Civilization

This game depicts the Persian wars in Greece between and BC at three months per turn. Each turn one has a randomlydetermined number of action points which one spends by activating inidual generals/admirals and their commands. The game also features a number of strategem chits, allowing special actions Treason, Reconnaissance, Storms at Sea, etc. There are three scenarios, covering the Ionian revolt against Persia and each of the two Persian Wars.

Does anyone know of any game and I guess Id better add English language game covering the rise of the Achaemenid Persian Empire?

I am called Huginn…, or is it Muninn…, I forget…

I was soloing a game ofSuccessorslast night and I thought that map was close to what I needed. It also gave me some ideas of the relative complexity Im aiming for. Once I get some time Ill try to develop that further.

Robinson Crusoe Adventures on the Cursed Island

I remember that game. I used to own it, and liked it quite a bit. The only problem I see is that the map is a little more Mediterranean centered than I would like, though it would still work for the Persians westward expansion.

This may be a little generic for you, but King of Kings and presumably Imperator has a Cyrus the Great scenario for the expansion of Persia.

It really is inexplicable that this Super Power its creation from the Medes through Cyrus rise and beyond hasnt been simulated. In ct, you could consider adapting theBritanniaMaharaja, et. al. system especially if you continue through to the Mohammedan conquest and beyond.

considered them the Bad Guys, in ct I would characterize them the Good guys to many of their subject peoples such as the Jews. Ive just found them to be considered that way in many of the Western accounts of their wars with the Greeks. But still they built the largest preRoman empire in antiquity.

I am called Huginn…, or is it Muninn…, I forget…

I am called Huginn…, or is it Muninn…, I forget…

This sounds like a great theme for a game. The rise of the Persian Empire was a remarkable achievement in the ancient world.

I have a bad feeling that even if there is nothing like what Im looking for out there, this thread may still end up costing me money

Last edited Mon Jul , pm Total Number of Edits

Geekdo, BoardGameGeek, the Geekdo logo, and the BoardGameGeek logo are trademarks of BoardGameGeek, LLC.

And I thank all of you very much for your responses. Now Ive got some research to do and probably some money to spend….

I am called Huginn…, or is it Muninn…, I forget…

Yeah, thats what Im thinking youre probably going to have to adapt an existing game like this, Assyrian Wars, orAlexandrosCommand mag. had several expansions for this, includingXenophon or use them for inspiration to create one whole cloth Id buy it!

Potentially you can also use something likeBarbarian, Kingdom Empire

Theres the Vae Victis magazine gameRather Dead Than Persian. Im not sure whether this is strategic enough for you.

persian cultureIs Iran an Arab Country?

persian cultureIs Iran an Arab Country?To those definitions, Lewis adds a more recent usage that excises religion by regarding the Arabicspeaking peoples as a nation or group of sister nations in the modern sense, linked by a common territory, language, and culture. Arab Christianswho werent designated that way until the thcenturywere particularly attracted to that version of Arab nationalism because it would make them full members of the state.

What territory do Arabs inhabit? The Arab conquests of the seventh century spread the Arabic language and civilization from North Africa to central Asia. Under the Islamic caliphate, Arabic became the language of scripture, government, law, literature, and science. Majority Arabicspeaking countries remain in southwest Asia, Egypt, and North Africa. TheArab Leagueincludes Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, the Palestine Liberation Organization, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.

The answer to the second question is easy No. But explaining why Iran isnt an Arab country requires the answer to the first.

Note the absent country Iran. Alone among the Middle Eastern peoples conquered by the Arabs, the Iranians did not lose their language or their identity. Ethnic Persians make up percent of modern Iran, and modern Persian is the official language. Persian also has official status in Afghanistan, where Dari, or Afghan Persian, is one of two official languages. In addition, the majority of Iranians are Shiite Muslims while most Arabs are Sunni Muslims. So Iran ils most of the fourpart test of language, ancestry, religion, and culture.

s characterization of Iran as an Arab neighbor in adossieron the Saudi royal mily. Who are the Arabs, and is Iran an Arab country?

The easiest definition is to say that an Arab is simply someone who speaks Arabic. But thats not satisctory. Not all Arabicspeaking peoples identify themselves as Arabs.

Clickherefor a glossary of Islam, orherefor the origins ofistan.

Lewis cites two broader definitions as more accurate. A group of Arab leaders once stated that whoever lives in our country, speaks our language, is brought up in our culture and takes pride in our glory is one of us. The scholar Sir Hamilton Gibb put it this way All those are Arabs for whom the central ct of history is the mission of Muhammad and the memory of the Arab Empire and who in addition cherish the Arab tongue and its cultural heritage as their common possession.

Who are the Arabs? Its not a cile question. Historian Bernard Lewis devotes s to the subject in his introduction toThe Arabs in History. Part of the problem, Lewis warns, is that the termArabmay be used in several different senses at one and the same time, and that a standard general definition of its content has rarely been possible.

Explainer thanksThe Arabs in HistoryandThe Multiple Identities of the Middle Eastby Bernard Lewis, andEncarta Online.

Both of those definitions encompass more than just language. The first definition adds a geographic element and a cultural element, and Gibb adds religion to the mix. Encarta Online gives airly succinct definitionthat includes all four elements the ancient and presentday inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula and often applied to the peoples closely allied to them in ancestry, language, religion, and culture. Part of the problem with understanding the meaning of Arab, Lewis writes in another book, is that secular Westerners have great difficulty understanding a culture in which not citizenship, not nationality, not descent, but religion, or more precisely, membership of a religious community, is the ultimate determinant of identity.

ancient persian societyPapers

Comparing and Contrasting Ancient Greek Drinking Vessels and the Present Day Starbucks Cup

Exploring Homers Iliad as a Source of Information about the Ancient City of Troy

Dionysus the ancient Greek god of wine, merry , and madness. Dionysus is included in some lists of the twelve Olympians of Ancient Greek religion. Dionysus was the last god to be accepted into Mt. Olympus. He was the also youngest Olympian, and the only one to have a mortal mother. The Dionysia was a large festival held in ancient Athens in honor of Dionysus. During the festival, numerous theatrical performances of dramatic tragedies and comedies were preformed while people would eat and drink, especially wine…. [tags God of wine, merry , maddness]

Theater was an important part of Ancient Greek Civilization. History of Greek theatre began with religious festivals which aim to honor Dionysus, a god. During the festivals some citizens sing songs and perform improvisation plays and other participants of festivals judges this performances to decide which one of them was the best. These plays form the foundation of the Greek Theatre. Because of the competition between performers to create best performances, plays gained an aesthetic perspective and became a form of art…. [tags history of Greek theater]

In todays society, women hold a position equal to that of a man. However, this has not always been the case especially in the Ancient Greek society. In the society there were many rules and regulations for all, but in particular the women had it the hardest. Women were seen as insignificant characters in the Ancient Greek society. While the men.women attained the most difficult job of all, bearing children. These women in the society had very little freedom, actually no freedom at all. Can you imagine being locked inside a house all day with the windows locked…. [tags modern, Ancient Greek, equality, womens studies]

Pygmalion is one of Bernard Shaws most mous and beloved plays, which he published in London in . This play was written during the Edwardian era which was characterised by major political, social and economical changes. Politically, the reign of king Edward VII witnessed a relative involvement of social segments such as labourers and women in political life. Socioeconomically, the British society was marked by a strict and a clearcut social class system in the early twentieth century. During this period and up to First World War, it was believed that of the British population owned approximately of the countrys wealth…. [tags class differences, ancient greek]

Ancient Greek Mythology Hellas The Oppressive

Ancient Hieroglyphics The Decipherment, Dissemination, and Development Relating to Todays Modern English Language

… According to Plato, a distinction should be in place between student and instructor. Furthermore, the instructor should have total knowledge about whatever subject the student is seeking to learn about. Socrates boldly declared that all people innately have the capability to discover all that can be known. He went on to contend that the value of a thought, concept, and indeed a person itself is measured by its ability to make the thinker more content and satisfied. This defied the popular notion that these were judged by standards set by legislators and the even the gods…. [tags education, cultural, behaviors]

Apoxyomenos and the Role of Athletics in Ancient Greek Culture

Ancient Greek and Mesopotamian Religions A Comparison

Greek tragedies often teach readers several valuable lessons, one of which is the catastrophe caused by acting on emotions. Both Oedipus and Antigone experience this as a result of their rash behavior. Even Creon ends up miserable in Antigone due to the change in his behavior. By acting on their emotions, these characters all experience tragic downlls, while others, such as Ismene and Creon during Oedipus Rex, remain safe due to their prudence and indications of wisdom. Due to the actions she took based on her emotions, Antigone suffered a r worse te than Ismene…. [tags catastrophe, emotions, prophecy]

Athens and Sparta are among the most iconic names within the ancient Greek world. Each city state created a vast among of history and eslished large names for themselves within the history books. However, if both city states managed to get their names known in this way, how alike were their actions. How is the militaristic Sparta different from the democratic Athens. Each civilization had a wide variety of differences within the way they managed themselves. These differences included the governmental structure of the city state itself, the social ladder imbedded within the society, and the daily life of the citizens…. [tags athens, sparta, ancient greek]

The position of women in Classical Athens has often been described as subordinate in comparison to men. Women were categorized in very particular ways Athenian women were wives, while those who migrated to Athens from other citystates were slaves or prostitutes. Countless literature, from tragedy to comedy and political s, reinforces the notion that citizen women were meant to serve their husbands within the confines of the oikos and produce legitimate sons in order to further the glory of men while nonAthenian women served their purpose towards men through ual pleasure…. [tags Women and Religion Greece]

Aside from the intertwinements, or lack thereof, of religion into peoples lifes, how else did the people of these three cultures live their everyday lives, and what parallels can be made. One of the biggest common themes in the social structures and lifes of these three cultures are the rights and privileges they gave women. In ancient Greece, women had basically no political rights and were nearly always under the control of men. Their main duty was to have kids, and preferably male ones at that…. [tags Religion, Life, Inventions, Innovations]

Lets take you back, way back, back into time, back to Early Greece. There are a lot of things that set early Greece apart from all the other chapters in the book. First off, I am a musically inclined girl who has grown up around music all of my life. I guess that is one reason why I have chosen the field that I am studying right now. I feel that it was always interesting to learn about Ancient Greece and its culture in music and poems. Not only does it set music apart, but it also tells an interesting tale with its art, literature, architecture, important people, and historical significance or relevance…. [tags music, philosophy, humanities]

Ancient Greek Women In ancient Greek society women lived hard lives on account of mens patriarch built communities. Women were treated as property. Until about a girls teens she was owned by her ther or lived with her mily. Once the girl got married she was possessed by her husband along with all her belongings. An ancient Greece teenage girl would marry about a yearold man that she probably never met before. Many men perceived women as being not being human but creatures that were created to produce children, please men, and to fulfill their household duties…. [tags essays research s]

Ancient Greek mythology has made its way into public conscience and knowledge. So much so that any person on the street would be able to name at least one deity from their pantheon. From this public knowledge, much is known about the religions including its stories and mythologies. But less is known about a persons role in Ancient Greek religion and even less about a woman roles in their religion. What roles the Ancient Greek people did play can be gathered from the Greek stories and myths. But more specifically what roles did Ancient Greek women play in their religion…. [tags mythology, deity, priesthoods]

Three Key Points of Ancient Greek, Roman, and the Renaissance Life

Art of ancient Greece My report is on ancient Greek art mainly sculptures and vase art I will also be writing about a day in the life of a Greek artist. Artists in ancient Greece varied from designing coins, mosaics, gem engravings, architecture, pottery and sculptures. Im also going to talk about what tools the sculptors used and the various methods used to make pottery and vases. The second part of my report will be about a day in the life of a Greek artist for example how they were treated were they considered middle class, upper class or were they looked down upon also what were their daily tasks, how did they would start their day and end it…. [tags essays research s]

Todays modern English language did not develop overnight, rather over hundreds and thousands of centuries. The main that we develop our language from is Greek, however we also have to think about where the Greeks derived their language from. After a very long chain reaction going through multiple cultures, the language that we use to this day arose and can be traced back to its original roots. The language of the early ancient Egyptians consisted of picturelike drawings that could be found on the walls of caves, pottery, and religious documents…. [tags greek, roots, ancient, cultures]

Of the many conflicting philosophies, morality, when referring to ones sense of ethics, is the greatest and most intriguing disparity between the Ancient Greek ideologies of heroism and the contemporary views of today. By the standards of the Greeks, Achilles was a Hero. He was the embodiment of the inidual, a man of unwavering principle, not only unwilling but incapable of allowing his values to become compromised. His credo and the actions determined though it, while certainly irreconcilable with present ethical standards, are strongly rooted in his own idea of justice…. [tags Achilles and Hector, Plato, Socrates]

DBQ ANCIENT GREEK CONTRIBUTIONS The Ancient Greek contribution ranged by the BC, however its influence on the Western Literate Society lasts to this day. As the Greeks expanded their empire, they spread their ideas to other countries, while also borrowing from other cultures. During this period of time, the Greeks made many significant and longlasting contribution to our modern culture in Philosophy, Art, Democracy, Drama, Math, and Science. These givings of important ideas, inventions, and structures have had an extraordinary influence on the surrounding environment, society, and in the future…. [tags European History]

From the early stages of civilization men created a form of government to help bring order to society. One of the greatest philosophers Thomas Hobbes believed that men left in their natural state is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short; however, for men to obtain peace they must renounce their freedom to a form of government to gain freedom. Hobbes, The government has shaped many civilizations, and brought many changes to each new civilization. Throughout history one can observe many forms of government, some government systems brought peace and prosperity to the states while others brought destruction, war, and mine which can be seen in Ancient Greek and Rome… [tags history, ancient greek]

Thesis statement While the ancient Greek historians made great strides in perfecting the writing of history, the Roman historians and the Greek historian writing Roman history continued perfecting the art of writing good history. The two Greeks Herodotus and Thucydides started the practice of reporting truth and personal knowledge of historical events above prose and poetry visvis Homer, as well as removing much of the theologicalcentric content. The Roman historians that came after improved on this practice, particularly Tacitus, who used the better developed recordkeeping of the times to write more concise, accurate histories with personal knowledge of the movers and shakers of t… [tags greece, writing roman history, polybius]

Ancient Greece was a thriving Greek civilization that lasted from the archaic period to the end of the antiquity era. The ancient Greek culture was a technologically advanced civilization who laid the foundation for many of our modern day cultural traditions. One tradition that is still very prominent in our culture is theatre. The ancient Greeks have been considered the pioneers of theatre, and are known to have introduced the first actor, the tragedy genre, and most impressively theatre architecture…. [tags acoustics, skene]

Penelope is a great example of how Greek women should act in early society. Penelope was loyal to her husband, she was clever, and she was a good mother to her son Telemachos. Penelope honored her husband and didnt go against him even though he was gone for over years. She also had to ce over suitors while Odysseus was gone. Penelope showed her cleverness when she told the town she would remarry when she finished weaving the rug. Every night Penelope would undo the work she weaved so she could buy time for her husband…. [tags Odessy, homer, characters, women, ancient greek, h]

Ancient Greece, the birthplace of theatre, continues to greatly influence theatre today. Drama is a form of poetry, because dialogue was spoken or sung in verses. Many Greek plays are still relevant today. Some plays survived on their merits, while others were preserved from academic interest or by accident Peter Arnott. The Great Dionysia was an important yearly religious celebration and festival, honoring Dionysus, the Greek god of wine and fertility. The Great Dionysia is where theatre first began…. [tags genres, great dionysia, ]

The Role of the Chorus in Ancient Greek Plays

Gender Roles in Ancient Greek Society Throughout history, the roles of women and men have always differed to some degree. In ancient Greece, the traditional roles were clearcut and defined. Women stayed home to care for children and do housework while men left to work. This system of society was not too r off the hunter gatherer concept where women cared for the house and the men hunted. Intriguingly enough, despite the customary submissive role, women had a more multiceted role and in society as juxtaposed with the rather role men played…. [tags Greek Gender Roles]

Hippocrates and Galen Comparative study between the best Greek Medical doctors of ancient Times. Introduction As The Greek empire declined, Rome inherited its medical traditions and knowledge. During the st and nd centuries A.D health standards dropped considerably and outbreaks occurred of life threatening diseases. Galen of Pergamon, a follower of Hippocrates, gathered much of the medical knowledge of the time and added to it his studies of anatomy and physiology mostly of animals. In Spite of his errors in describing certain anatomical and physiology phenomena, his writing created the foundation for medicine over years later in Europe…. [tags essays research s]

Homer was the ancient Greek poet said to have lived between around the th and th century B.C. Some believe that he was born on the island of Chios and others say he was in Ionia. He was said to be a court singer and a storyteller. He is mous for the writings of the epic poems the Iliad and the Odyssey. While there is controversy weather or not Homer alone wrote these pieces or many other people wrote it over a period of time and even if Homer was an actual person. Homer also wrote Homeric Hymns which are short poems celebrating various Gods…. [tags Ancient Greece, Greek History, Trojan war]

… Tesserae were sometimes placed in specific angles to reflect light. More detailed aspects of mosaics were often constructed on a piece of cloth. As years passed more earthy toned mosaics were replaced with s of blues and later gold. Word Count Part C Evaluation of Sources Source Marcus Rautman. Byzantine Luxury Arts. In World History Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABCCLIO, . Accessed April , . The origin of the document Byzantine Luxury Arts written by Marcus Rautman is a secondary source article addressing the techniques and materials of different Byzantine crafts and art forms that were highly valued by the Byzantine p… [tags artistic s, use of icons and symbols]

Speech on The Underworld in Greek Mythology The Underworld, better known as Hades after the god who ruled it, was a dark and dreary place where the shades, or souls, of those who died lived. In the next few minutes, I will tell you about how one came to die, the topography of the Underworld, and the beings whom dwelled there. Your whole life was planned and plotted by the Fates. The Fates were the three goddesses who controlled the destiny of everyone from the time they were born to the time they died…. [tags Ancient Greece Greek History]

The Prevalence of Literacy in Ancient Greek and Roman Societies

The Role of the Chorus in Ancient Greek Plays *Works Cited Not Included In ancient Greek plays, the role of the chorus was to sing lyrical passages. The lyrical passages were set up by the writer and the chorus would then perform dance movements to compliment those lyrics. In todays day and age, it is the cast members in many musicals who depict the role as the chorus. However, in some cases, the chorus also helps assist the modern reader in interpreting ancient terminology used during that period…. [tags Papers]

Womens Involvement in Ancient Greek Religion

The choruss perspective of justice works differently in Euripides Medea and Aeschylus The Libation Bearers. In both The Libation Bearers and Medea, the driving force of vengeance links the chorus to each of the plays protagonists. For both plays, the choruses begin with a strong support of their heroes with a belief that the course of action that those characters are pursuing for the sake of avenging the wrongs done to them or their milies is just and right. The chorus of Medea, however, moves away from that original conviction in the moral justification of revenge…. [tags Libation Bearers, Medea and Aeschylus]

Approaching the subject of ancient Greek religion one encounters a paradox simultaneously we know too little and too much. The Greeks have neither a word for religion in their vocabulary, nor possessed sacred books or religious s, they neither formed clergy, nor appointed a person to exercise absolute religious authority. However, in Greek society the ubiquity and presence of their gods consumed the commoners, influenced the politicians, and inspired the artists. No aspect of Greek life can be approached without considering their religion…. [tags religion, belief, greek]

Your search returned over essays forancient greek

Most countries in the world have arches in their creation myths, even countries as distant from each other as Japan and Greece. Japans religion, Shinto, has stories about sibling marriages and casting deformed children away. Greek myths have similar plots in their stories. There are reasons why these two completely different cultures have similar stories. The next three paragraphs explain why there are arches and differences in creation myths of Japan and Greece. Both Shinto myths and Greek myths have siblings marrying each other…. [tags Creation Myths]

After Life Beyond The Horizon The Ancient Greek Belief of the Afterlife

Ancient Egyptian Greek and Roman Stele Just as we use tombstones to mark graves and commemorate our dead, so too did ancient civilizations. One way to do so in the ancient world was through the use of steles. A stele is a stone slab, usually decorated in relief and inscribed, that honored the death of a person. Three of the ancient cultures that had implemented the use of the stele were the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. In comparing an example from each civilization, it is possible to see the evolution of the stele from one period to another and the different influences each civilization had on a single element…. [tags essays s]

The Role of Love in Ancient Greek Medicine Among the many Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Greece, one that was worshipped on multiple levels and to a great extent was Love. This ine force held a powerful role in many aspects of the Greeks lives, including the understanding of their own bodies. As the societys culture moved away from reliance on the Divine, and towards a more scientific method of understanding itself, the notion of love remained ingrained in the set assumptions; its dual ability to cure and destroy underscored the practices of medicine and the understandings of human anatomy…. [tags Greece Medical Love Essays]

Greece The Democratic Eslishment vs The Militaristic Society

The Peloponnesian War The Great War of the Ancient Greek World

Comparison of Ancient Greek Pottery Throughout the history of Ancient Greece thousands of great works of art were produced. Works were created in many different media, ranging from life statues to larger than life architectural structures. One of art that can sometimes be overlooked, though, is pottery. There are many examples of great Greek pottery, but the two that will be used as a sample are Artemis Slaying Actaeon and Woman and Maid. By considering the s of these works, and comparing them directly we are able get a taste not only of the artistic s of the time, but also a taste of ancient Greek culture…. [tags essays s]

Ancient Greek Historians Herodotus and Thucydides

Comparing Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman Architecture

Ancient Greek Medicine While Greek Medicine particularly from the th century B.C onwards, increasingly used scientific method to develop cures, there still however remained people that considered medicine to be a religion. The ancient Greeks Hellenic made important discoveries about the human body and health, so by the sixth century BC, medicinal practices focused largely on a more clinical approach involving observation. Their discoveries were made by firstly studying the human anatomy using dissection and vivisection, finding ways to heal using things such as plants and herbs, then finally practising surgery on the human body using different instruments…. [tags Greek History]

Ancient Greece and Greek Scholars and their Influence in the USA Today

Evidence of Etruscan culture has been identified to exist around B.C.E. Scholars have this information based on the art pieces found. This articles range from sculpture, paintings, pottery, metalwork, and jewelry. Etruscans are considered to be the blueprint of what the Roman culture was and a lot of influence from Greek colonies that lived in Italy was also found. This essay will attempt to describe the and the techniques used by Etruscans. As the dictionary defines is a distinctive, formal, or characteristic manner of expression in words, music, painting, etc , n.d….. [tags Etruscan Style, earring]

Aristophanes Voices Concerns for Ancient Greek Culture in His Plays

Democracy Outweighs The Other Forms of Goverment

These results are sorted by most relevant first ranked search. You may also sort these by ratingoressay length.

The Necessity of Roles in Ancient Athens The dramatic growth of ancient Athens from a powerful polis to an Aegean Empire was a result of the hierarchy in ancient Athens. The roles of the people played a big part in this advancement. Therefore, the roles in ancient Athens were very structured and rigid. The male citizens worked very hard politically, while they left the women with the task of bearing children, and the slaves with the backbreaking physical work that allowed the city to function. In ancient Athens, men held all the important positions in society and ran the government…. [tags Ancient Greece, Greek History]

… Dikaiopolis doesnt understand why they want to fight so much. He takes every opportunity to advocate their stupidity by comically refuting their actions toward him and his mily. Dikaiopolis says, Comedy too can sometimes discern what is right. I shall not please, but I shall say what is true, The Acharnians, lines . He means that he is going to say whatever he feels is right, and in the end, no matter what actions the Acharnians take, there isnt anything they can do to stop him from laughing at what they do…. [tags comedy, peace, athens]

Greek Mythology should be taught in High School

The Battle of Leuctra, one of the most influential and significant battles in ancient Greek history, occurred during the summer of BC. This battle not only influenced Greece for many years to come but also eastern European history in the fourth century BC. Prior to Leuctra, the citystate of Sparta was the most dominant and powerful force in the Peloponnese and the rest of Greece. However, as a result of the conflict, the course of history would change forever. Spartas defeat at the Battle of Leuctra ended its power in Greece because as a result of the loss, its military, political, and social dominance was shattered forever and was never recovered for the rest of its history leading to… [tags ancient Greek history]

The Human Body in Ancient Greek Sculptures The primary focus of ancient Greek sculptures was that of the human body. Almost all Greek sculptures are of nude subjects. As the first society to focus on nude subjects, Greek sculptors attempted to depict man in what they believed was the of the gods and so would come to celebrate the body by striving for verisimilitude or true likeness realism and naturalism!.Riffert Not only did the Greeks celebrate the human form in their art but also in everyday life…. [tags Art History Essays]

Greece is a small country on the southern end of Europes Balkan Peninsula. While a relatively small area of geography, the country was a focal point of power and influence in the ancient world as well as today. Greek architects were relentless in their quest for perfection, used meticulous attention to detail and created many innovations. The methods used were tremendously sophisticated and complex even in comparison to modern times. Techniques used by ancient Greek architects are still used today and are copied around the world…. [tags world history, european history]

We all look for our beginnings. Whether we look for them in our personal life or in our professional life, we still look for them. As I was looking around the theatre recently, I was looking at and wondering where the idea of the theatre came from. Rather, who built it and why it is built the way it is. Who made the first one. Where do the roots of the theatre lay. All very good questions that I hope will be answered. In the beginning of time, man did not understand the complex workings of the universe…. [tags essays research s fc]

Greek mythology is a compilation of the Ancient Greek stories that are based on their culture and practices. Its also about their gods and heroes, as well as their origins. Each of the Greek myths has a moral message through the stories that are written. It teaches us the good deeds and wrongdoing of the gods and goddesses, and how we, as a human being, should act. Thus, Greek mythology should be taught to high school students. There is something uniquely different about each of the Greek myth, each have their own message that it wants to deliver…. [tags Persuasive Essay Ancient Greek Greece]

Ancient Greek and Roman Dietary Guidelines The Greeks and Romans didnt have very many options on what they ate, they basically ate anything they could find or make. They had many different techniques of cooking and certain classes of people ate differently than others. The Greeks also had many religious ceremonies that were associated with meals and eating habits. The wealthy Greeks ate a variety of meals and related them very much to religion. Fresh, dried, and salted fish were a delicacy if they were mackerel, sturgeon, tuna, sea bream, or mullet; but one of the vorites was eels from Lake Kopais in Boeotia…. [tags Papers]

Ancient Greek Drama A Comparison of the Euripides and Sophocles

Roman Architecture Roman architecture implemented many characteristics of Ancient Greek architecture. The Romans showed the influence of their engineering skills and secular monuments, while Greek architecture exhibited the influence of their gods and ideas of physical perfection. The use of arches, the dome and concrete permitted the ancient Romans to attain extraordinary achievements in the construction of imposing structures for public use. While showing the magnificence of the Greeks and their practical application, as well as their creativity, the Romans eslished architectural features that remain to this day…. [tags columns, post, lintel, monuments]

Ancient Greek Religion Mycenaean to Classical Period Ancient Greece has been a religion centered culture since the earliest period of habitation in Greece, the PreMycenaean/Mycenaean period. Also through to the Dark Ages to the Classical period. It is a religiously centered civilization, and did have significant changes in the how it was incorporated into peoples daily lives. Religion is important to know about the Ancient Greeks because through it we are able to understand how they lived their lives…. [tags greece, classical period, priestess]

… It is interesting to note that dithyrambs were alternatively called goatsong, and the word tragedy is derived from the Greek tragos, meaning goat, and odi, meaning song Nardo . In his work Poetics, the Greek philosopher Aristotle notes, [Tragedy] certainly began in improvisations originating with the authors of the dithyramb And its advance after that was little by little, improving on whatever they had before them at each stage Nardo . Over the years, the dithyramb grew in elaborateness, eventually reenacting myths from older works of epic poetry, such as Homers Odyssey or Iliad Nardo …. [tags Sophocles, Golden Age, Oedipus]

In ancient Greece there was a belief that an equal, but justified, negative event offset every positive event. Likewise, a positive experience justified every negative escapade. This Greek belief is apparent in the epic Iliad by Homer in the scenes that Hephaistos shions onto Achilleus new battle shield. The scenes painted on Achilleus new shield reflect to the reader the belief that the Greeks had in balance in their lives. In one such spectacle Hephaistos depicts a Greek wedding tradition…. [tags Ancient Greece Essays]

Ancient Greek Theater Architecture Many aspects of ancient Greek theaters have long been studied and debated. Much of the information about these theaters is based on speculation due to the ct that so little of them still exist today. This lack of remnants especially applies to the architecture of the early Greek Theaters. However, through archeological finds and years of studying the people, the plays, and the architecture of the time, we are able to make many conclusions about these early structures…. [tags Architecture History]

Historians have long considered Ancient Greece to be one of the most influential societies on modern day life. Ancient Greece has inspired the modern world in five main areas theatre, government, philosophy, art, and architecture. Theatre flourished in Greece, particularly in Athens, between c. BC and c. BC. During its beginnings theatrical performances were part of Dionysia, a festival held in honour of the god Dionysus. The plot of the plays was always inspired by Greek mythology, a theme that is still common today…. [tags Ancient Greece]

The two ancient civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome were the best of the best during their time periods. Ancient Greece began around B.C. by the inhabitants known as the Mycenaeans, followed by the Minoans. The Minoans built the foundation of Greece. The Roman Empire was founded around B.C. by the two twins, Romulus and Remus. Romulus ended up killing Remus and built the city of Rome on one of seven rolling hills. Architecture was very important to both civilizations and they were always trying to out due the other…. [tags Architecture]

A Comparison of the Christian and Ancient Greek Cultures

Ancient Greek Philosophical Views are Still Relevant Toda As a strategy to defeat the invading Persians during the Persian War, the poleis Greek citystates of Greece united in order to form one large military force. Following the war, Greece decided to adhere to this idea of unity and form the Delian League in order to protect Greece from Persian domination. However, many of the poleis begin to resent the ct that the polis of Athens held a roll at the top of the League. This tension leads to a war between Athens and Sparta, known as the Peloponnesian War…. [tags Papers]

The Greek culture served as a frame for many aspects of Western life, one of which is government. They are the first culture that we know of that created a true democracy. They were incredible thinkers, people nowadays could never have thought of such reason. Without their thoughts and ideas our modern day government would not be as powerful as it is currently. The Greeks were highly sophisticated thinkers and had a marvelous sense of imagination. They were the first culture to figure out a democratic form of government…. [tags Greece, government, democracy,]

The Role of the Chorus in Ancient Greek Tragedies

The social stratifications for both societies had a few similarities, but overall were very different. The social stratification in both societies was mostly determined by birth, similar to the caste system, with almost no social mobility. The ancient greeks had social classes; the Athens, which were the highest class, they had all political power and were the wealthiest, to be part of this social class you would need to be born in Athens, because the rights for the class could only be inherited hereditarily…. [tags athens, roman republic, social stratification]

The ancient Greek and Roman civilisations boasted numerous writers, poets and historians, who left us an impressive intellectual heritage. But were common people literate as well in classical times, or were they relying on a body of professional scribes. After a brief explanation about the role of orality and the meaning of literacy in ancient times, the essay will examine some possible evidences of literacy from the epigraphic habit in classical antiquity as epistolary exchanges Vindolanda Tablets, inscriptions on artects ostraka, ladys shoe from Vindolanda, the Nestor Cup, epitaphs and dedications on monuments the Pantheon in Rome, the tomb of Eurysaces the Bakker and severa… [tags orality, inscriptions, elite]

Ancient Greek and Roman Art Styles in the Renaissance

Greek Architecture is one of the earliest s of architecture. It is also one of the leading forerunners for some of the modern architecture we see today. Although there are very few of the Greeks masterpieces left to view to this day they are still masterpieces to behold. Architectural s are used for decoration and structure. Greek Architecture isnt just for the glamour and decoration, but also for the creative method and s in which a building was built Greek architecture originated in Crete formed by the Dorians hence the Doric columns…. [tags early architectural s]

Book Review of Ancient Greek Religion by Jon D. Mikalson

… She oiled my limbs, kneading and knuckling, and slapping; looked at my wound, muttering charms and said it would heal clean I stretched out under the old womans hand, feeling my sinews loosened and my blood run sweetly. nothing was left but the smart of the wine in my graze, and a heavy drowsiness In the morning the old woman came again with her warm oils. I slept like a log; my leg wound was drying cleanly, and not much deeper than a scrape. The muscles I had thought were torn were only strained; all I need now was to move about…. [tags alternative medicine, health]

Ancient Greek Culture Inventors of Demoncrary

Jealousy in Ancient Greek Society Jealousy is one of the harsher and more passionate ces of Love in Ancient Greek Society. Societal norms for love and relationships dictate that older men are the lovers who pursue women and young boys. Love infects the pursuer and causes him to have intense feelings about the object of his desire, but not always vice versa. Consequently jealousy is seen more as the active partners disease and is commonly associated as a male emotion. Women also experience jealousy but they are not supposed to be the pursuers in relationships according to societal norms…. [tags Greek History Studies]

… The denouement takes place when Oedipus is begging Creon to put him into exile. Character is also important in the Poetics. An important aspect of it, tragic flaw, also known as hamartia, is the ult in a character that eventually leads to their downll. Oedipus, upon learning of Apollos creed to kill the murderer of the last king to restore Thebes to its former glory, becomes overly determined and vows to exile the murderer once he is found, including a mily member if that is who the murderer turns out to be…. [tags Sophocles, ancient Greek literature]

Ancient Greece When thinking about Greece, people generally think of Athens and its beauty, but not many think of the things that ancient Greece has given the world. Without all of the struggles and wars that Greece went through, they would not have been able to bring the world some of the greatest scholars known. Although the government, knowledge, and education the U.S. and the world has received from Greece is not visible, it is still very important today. The U.S. government has many things in common with the ancient governments of Athens and Sparta…. [tags Government, Education, Philosophy]

Ancient Greek The Birthplace of Western Civilization

Greek Pride in the Inidual The culture of ancient Greece reflects the importance of the inidual in society in many different ways. The Greeks used art, philosophy, and even their system of government to convey their beliefs in the importance of one single man in a society. Greek artists showed value for the inidual. All people were portrayed in Greek art, from the sagging old woman to the ideal athlete. Although early Greek art focused on the human ideal, their later art shows that the Greeks appreciated all forms, and found the human body in general to be a beautiful thing…. [tags Ancient Greece Greek History]

Arches of Shinto and Ancient Greek Religion

… Italy was the epicenter of the Renaissance and many mous Renaissance artisans and inventors came from Italy. Sandro Botticelli was a painter and started painting at the age of when he became the apprentice to Florentine painter Fra Filippo Lippi. Sandros legacy was in his paintings that featured figures from Greek and Roman mythology such as Venus goddess of love. A Renaissance Idol is a person with dexterity in their profession, is very unique and creative and is always thinking of new zany ideas…. [tags Sandro Boticelli, greek, middle ages]

Penelope An Example of a Honorable Greek Woman in the Oddessy

… Until Xerxes, the next Persian king, would come in to power. Xerxes came into power at around B.C., and intended to continue Persias revenge against the Greek people. This time they were determined to use overwhelming force so in B.C., Xerxes gathered together an army of several hundred thousand inntry and a navy of six hundred ships. He threatened Greece, and demanded that all citystates surrender to him. Many citystates surrendered, except for a relatively few that included Athens and Sparta…. [tags mediterranean sea, greek, sparta]

What do all cultures have in common. All cultures have some believe that after death the soul goes to an underworld. In the underworld there is a variety of different gods and creatures, beliefs of what happens to the soul, the settings in them, and the heros journey to and from the underworld. In ancient Greece they believed that a god by the name of Hades ruled everything beneath the earth. They also saw the importance in the length of ones life. This is why they had the three semigoddesses who are responsible for the spinning of life and death is called the Moirae…. [tags cultures, afterlife, Dante, Ancient Greece,]

There are a handful of differences and similarities from an Ancient Greek drinking vessel and a Starbucks cup some people may not take into consideration. While comparing and contrasting a Starbucks coffee cup and Ancient Greek drinking vessels I will take careful notation into the differences and similarities of their form, function and decoration of the articts. I will go into careful detail of what the ancient Greeks used to create their drinking vessels. Also, I will elaborate the functions that the Ancient Greeks first had in mind and what uses they had during the different time periods…. [tags Compare/Contrast]

Even though democracy has been in existence since the ancient Greek, it rose to prominence in the twentieth century with a large number of countries shifting to democracy. This transition to democracy has sprung up a debate over its appropriateness as a system of government, with some supporting it as an ideal system while others coining it as the vilest form of government. Although it is argued that democracy and economic growth do not go hand in hand, nevertheless, democracy is not the vilest form of government because it provides better governance, protects inidual liberty and rests sovereignty with the people…. [tags ancient greek, transition to democracy]

Its All Greek to Me! Examining Ancient Greek Theater Architecture

How the Greek revered their gods In ancient times, the Greeks had absolute and undeniable respect for their gods. They demonstrated their admiration by putting in place many rituals and celebrations to reverence the gods that they loved and feared in order to ensure harmony with them. In particular, the focus will be on the religious beliefs of the Greeks, including prayer and sacrifice, as well as on festivals and the arts, such as the ancient Olympic games and theatre. These aspects of their culture made a significant contribution to their quality of life…. [tags Ancient Greece Greek History]

Ancient Greek Tragedies Passion vs. Prudence

Ancient Greek Astronomy Since the first Egyptian rmers discovered the annual reappearance of Sirius just before dawn a few days before the yearly rising of the Nile, ancient civilizations around the Mediterranean have sought to explain the movements of the heavens as a sort of calendar to help guide them conduct earthly activities. Counting phases of the moon or observing the annual variations of day length could, after many years collection of observations, serve as vital indicators for planting and harvesting times, safe or stormy season for sailing, or time to bring the flocks from winter to summer pastures…. [tags Papers]

Like the Egyptians, artwork and architecture of the Greek Classical Age followed a canon of more freely accepted idealistic forms. While proportion and order are guiding principles of the classical Fiero , other features also played a significant role. These three major ideas, used in combination, are the Humanistic approach, the Realistic approach, and the Idealistic approach. The Relief with a Dancing Maenad, is a classical of art that represents a time when dance was prized for its moral value, as well as for its ability to give pleasure and induce good health Fiero …. [tags Culture]

Similarities and Differences Between Ancient Greek and Byzantine Art

A Comparison of the Christian and Ancient Greek Cultures Most Christians or those religions that follow the basic principles of the Bible believe in the stories told in the Bible. In ct, these stories are usually regarded not only as mere stories, but also as actual historical accounts of important people, events, and concepts of the Christian ith. However, stories of Greek and Roman mythology are typically regarded as nothing more than fictional, ntasy stories. The idea that Ancient Greeks viewed these stories to be their religion seems insane to many people of Biblical Faith…. [tags Papers]

Equality Between Men and Women in Modern Society vs. Ancient Greek Society

While he was born thousands of years ago, Euclid has made a mark in mathematics that has stood the test of time and continues to shape modern sciences. He discovered classic geometry and wrote many book and s on mathematics that proved useful to the great thinkers of the time. Having drafted a lot of his finding in his book The Elements, he has made a framework for mathematicians and is, even centuries later, revered as valued information. His years of studying have made him a loved and respected inidual…. [tags ancient Greek mathematicians]

Apoxyomenos and the Role of Athletics in Ancient Greek Culture According to Marilyn Stokstad, the visual arts are among the most sophisticated forms of human communication, at once shaping and being shaped by their social con v. As this quote implies, artistic pieces invariably are a reflection of the culture in which they were created. Thus, art is a potent means of deciphering the values and belief systems of ancient societies. Apoxyomenos BCE, or The Scraper, created by the sculptor Lysippos, is an enduring testament to the importance ascribed to athletics by the citizens of ancient Greece…. [tags Essays Papers]

I. Mom called it an experiment. But this kind of experiment didnt entail foaming beakers or a bolt of lightning to force life through the seams of Frankensteins monster. No, this one called for daisyprint jumpers from the local bargain bin. Number two pencils. Spiralring notebooks. The objective of these trips to the nearest supplies store soon came to light. All three of the hydras heads were going to kindergarten. We existed as both a medical miracle and an ancient Greek myth. Imagine our parents surprise after Moms midMarch delivery a firsttime mother and successful lawyer, ready to roll into parenthood with a series of parenting classes under their belts…. [tags conjoined, kindergarten, first day]

Ancient Greek Olympics Reporting todays Olympic games is like a technological masterpiece. The athletes compete in many events, their times and scores are tallied and sent worldwide by satellites and hightech computers within seconds. Each event is carefully watched and recorded with a sense of history. There was no such sense of history or records when the first Games began in Ancient Greece. The first recorded champion in Greece was a sprinter, Coroebus, he was a cook in a near by Greek city called, Elis…. [tags essays research s]

The Byzantine Empire existed for nearly , years, and its one of the greatest empires of all time. It started in A.D. and lasted until A.D. It had many rulers. It was known as the eastern Roman Empire. It spread roman culture to Eastern Europe in the Middle East, and was the most power government in the Middle Ages. It was known to be one of the greatest empires of all time. Byzantine derives from Byzantium, an ancient Greek colony founded by a man named Byzas. The site of the Byzantine Empire was ideally located to serve as a transit and trade point between Europe and Asia Minor…. [tags ancient greek, constantinople, christianity]

… Both the US and the Athenian government had the Legislative limb, the Executive extension, and the legal limb. The Legislative extension passes the laws, the Executive limb completes the laws, and the legal extensions had trials with paid members of the jury. In the US, a large portion of the just speculations that the administration utilization are either indistinguishable or fundamentally the same to the Ancient Athenians hypotheses. In reasoning old Greek kept s on the part of reason and request…. [tags philosophy, fine art, socrates]

The ancient Greek philosopher Plato once said, let parents bequeath to their children not riches, but the spirit of reverence Think Exist. This importance, for parents to pass down the notion of reverence, can be seen in Book One of Homers The Odyssey. Set at the ll of Troy, the reader is introduced to, if but briefly, Odysseus, his son Telemachos and the suitors who are after Penelopes hand in marriage. Throughout the first book, Homer makes it quite apparent that Telemachos and Odysseus are beyond doubt reverential characters and, therefore, set the foundation for being true heroes…. [tags Greek, Odyssey, Gods]

… While Maxites laboured outside, Adara the future wife of Maxites gave him water and brought him food as he worked, showing the role of each gender of this time; the man does the labour and the woman serves the man, and makes sure he is as comforle as possible. The roles of Maxites and Adara were one hundred percent noninterchangeable. This is a violation of Human Rights, humans have the right to do what they want, as long as it is not illegal, and if this right is stripped from them, they are being afflicted and unjustly forced into doing things that they might not even want to do…. [tags poseidon, Hera, Athena, Arphrodite, Zeus]

The Role of Greek Gods and Goddesses in Ancient Times

A Brief History of Ancient Greek Architecture

The Greek theatre tradition of the time was rooted in the spirituality of its people, developed with the help and instruction from the politicians of the day and analysed by the philosophical contingent of the age. To discover how the theatre tradition of the fifth century was influenced by the spiritual, philosophical and political mindset of its time, one must first look at how the theatre of this age was first developed. The Greek theatre tradition was born at a theatre built beneath the Acropolis in Athens, at an annual religious festival at which a large chorus of men would dance, play instruments and sing odes to the God of the festival, Dionysus…. [tags European Literature]

Ancient Greek Philosophical Views are Still Relevant Today

What Is Effective Social Behavior for an Ancient Greek?

Ancient Religions By MLB As civilization has progressed through the ages, many religions have arisen and taken hold around the world, two if the most interesting, being the religious beliefs of the ancient Mesopotamian and the Greeks. These two religions were practiced in different areas and at different times and, therefore, show that religion has played a critical role in every society and civilization. No matter how it is organized or what of god is worshiped, a society would be nothing without some kind of deity to organize it…. [tags essays research s fc]

The Role of Greek Gods and Goddesses in Ancient Times With all of the interesting aspects of the Odyssey, I am only going to touch on one of them. The gods and goddesses in the Odyssey of all of the deities mentioned I am only going to focus on a few. The first and most powerful of these is Zeus. Then we have Hermes, the messenger god. Last but not least of these would be Athena, the goddess of warriors. Zeus, Ruler of the gods. Zeus, ther of gods and of men. His power was vast as the sky, mighty as the roll of thunder …. [tags Greek Mythology]ancient persian societyPapers

Parthianpersian religion

Parthianpersian religionAhrimanas the Principle of Evil. We need not doubt that, in word, the Parthians from first to last admitted this antagonism, and professed a belief in Ormazd as the supreme god, and a dread of Ahriman and his ministers. But practically, their religious aspirations rested, not on these dim abstractions, but on beings whose existence they could better realize, and whom they could feel to be less remote from themselves. The actual devotion of the Parthians was offered to the Sun and Moon, to deities who were supposed to preside over the royal house, and to ancestral idols which each mily possessed, and conveyed with it from place to place with every change of habitation.

The Sun was saluted at his rising, was worshipped in temples, under the name ofMithra, with sacrifices and offerings; had statues erected in his honor, and was usually associated with the lesser luminary. The deities of the royal house were probably eithergenii, ministers of Ormazd, to whom was committed the special protection of the monarchs and their milies, like thebagaha vithiyaof the Persians, or else the ancestors of the reigning monarch, to whom a qualified inity seems to have been assigned in the later times of the empire. The Parthians kings usually swore by these deities on solemn occasions; and other members of the royal mily made use of the same oath. The main worship, however, of the great mass of the people, even when they were of the royal stock, was concentrated upon ancestral s, which had a place sacred to them in each house, and received the constant adoration of the household.

Very little is known as to the religion of the Parthians. The Parthian Empire, being culturally and politically erse, had a variety of religious systems and beliefs, the most widespread being those dedicated to Greek and Iranian religions .It seems probable that during the Persian period they submitted to the Zoroastrian system, which was generally maintained by the Achaemenian kings, acquiescing, like the great bulk of the conquered nations, in the religious views of their conquerors; but as this was not their own religion, we may conclude that they were at no time very zealous followers of the Bactrian prophet, and that as age succeeded age they became continually more lukewarm in their feelings, and more lax in their religious practice. The essence of Zoroastrian belief was dualism, recognition ofAhura Mazdaor Ormazd as the great Principle of Good, and of Angra Mainyu or

While thus lax and changeful in their own religious practice, the Parthians were, naturally, tolerant of a variety of creeds among their subjects. Fire altars were maintained, and Zoroastrian zeal was allowed to nourish in the dependent kingdom of Persia. In the Greek cities the Olympian gods were permitted to receive the veneration of thousands, while in Babylon, Nearda, and Nisibis the Jews enjoyed the free exercise of their comparatively pure and elevated religion. No restrictions seem to have been placed on proselytism, and Judaism certainly boasted many converts from the heathen in Adiabene, Charax Spasini, and elsewhere. Christianity also penetrated the Parthian provinces to a considerable extent, and in one Parthian country, at any rate, seems to have become the state religion. The kings of Osrhoene are thought to have been Christians from the time of the Antonines, if not from that of our Lord; and a nourishing church was certainly eslished at Edessa before the end of the second century.

Greek gods such as Zeus, Pallas , Nike and Apollo appear on Parthian coins , it is hard to say how much common such worship was outside of the Greek cities. No Zoroastern motifs appear on coins, suggesting a weaking of its influence during this period.

In the early times of the empire the Magi were held in high repute, and most of the peculiar tenets and rites of the Magian religion were professed and followed by the Parthians. Elemental worship was practised. Fire was, no doubt, held sacred, and there was an especial reverence for rivers. Dead bodies were not burned, but were exposed to be devoured by birds and beasts of prey, after which the dry bones were collected and placed in tombs. The Magi formed a large portion of the great national council, which elected and, if need were, deposed the kings. But in course of time much laxity was introduced. The Arsacid monarchs of Armenia allowed the Sacred Fire of Ormazd, which ought to have been kept continually burning, to go out; and we can scarcely suppose but that the Parthian Arsacidae shared their negligence. Respect for the element of fire so entirely passed away, that we hear of the later Parthians burning their dead. The Magi fell into disrepute, and, if not expelled from their place in the council, at any rate found themselves despised and deprived of influence. The later Parthian religion can have been little more than a worship of the Sun and Moon, and of the teraphim, or sacred s, which were the most precious possession of each household.

The Parthian Jews who were witnesses of the miraculous events which signalized the day of Pentecost may have, in some cases, taken with them the new religion to the land where they had their residence; or the Apostle, St. Thomas, may as Eusebius declares have carried the Gospel into the regions beyond the Euphrates, and have planted the Christian Church in the countries out of which the Jewish Church sprang. Besides the nourishing community of Edessa, which was predominantly, if not wholly, Christian from the middle of the second century, many converts were, we are told, to be found among the inhabitants of Persia, Media, Parthia Proper, and even Bactria. The infusion, however, was not sufficient to leaven to any serious extent the corrupt mass of heathenism into which it was projected; and we cannot say that the general character of the Parthian empire, or of the manners and customs of its subjects, was importantly affected by the new religion, though it had an extraordinary influence over iniduals.

Statue of a Parthian Hatra king holding a votive figure. Hatra was an ancient city in the Ninawa Governorate and alJazira region of Iraq, near Mosul. It was known as alHadr, a name which appears once in ancient inscriptions, and it was in the ancient Persian province of Khvarvaran. It was built circa rdnd centuries BCE and flourished st to nd centuries CE under the Parthians. Many articts and much of the remains of the city destroyed by ISIS .

Spice persian cultureTour

Hakuna Matata Package days Nights Stone town North west Kendwa beach

After the  tour we invite you for an opulenttraditionalSwahili lunchserved in a local house, here you will get a really taste of the spices in the food. The tour includes visiting theKidichi Persian Bathsbuilt in by the first Sultan of Zanzibar as a gift for his Persian wife.

You will be decorated with palmleaf accessories such as ties, rings, bracelets and glasses. At the Spice rms you will have an opportunity to taste some of theexotic fruits of Zanzibar.

The halfday trip includes transport, guide, entrance fees and a superb lunch.

Spice Package days nights Stone town South Coast

Note The above prices are from Stone town hotels,contactus for the prices from any beach hotel»Click here to book this trip.

Ourguided walking tour passes through villages and spice plantations, a walk through the rms as spice rms workers climbs trees, seek out specific plants and cuts off various barks, letting you see, feel and taste everything.

Thehistory of Zanzibarwould be incomplete without the cloves, nutmeg, cinnamon, pepper and many other spices which areessential ingredientin a Zanzibaris everyday life, it is the islands connection tospices and herbs. Zanzibar and Spice is a romantic entanglement that dates back to the th century. Apart from being an important commodity on the trade routes. They can be seen in the plantations just outside Zanzibar town, this is also  a ntastic opportunity to see the countryside and rural areas ofZanzibarand also connect with local people.

to Days Saris, Camping Saris Lodge Saris

Jambo Package days nights South west coast and Stone Town.


We have developed a special Spice Tour with indepth information not only about spices, but also organically grown herbs and detailed descriptions about their uses in traditional dishes, as cures for ailments and even for dyeing traditional ceremonial outfits for weddings and festivals. We have knowledgeable guides trained by a mous herbalist in Zanzibar Mr. Madawa.

Karibu Package, days nights.North east coast Stone town.

Last Minute Sari from Zanzibar/Dar es salaam.

At the Spice rms is the best place to buy fresh spices directly from the source.

Zanzibar Cultural Tours, Zanzibar Tour Packages, Tanzania Saris

Differences Between Kurds and Persiapersian religionns

Help us improve. Rate this post!votes, average.out of

A Kurdish intellectual who was murdered os by chauvinist Turkish agents whose Musa Anter was telling in his book Hatıralarım Memoirs that Persian in Kurdish Parsek which means Beggar. In ancient times they were like nomad Gypsy coming to our cities/villages and begging from us for something to eat.

Im Kurd, and I love my Persian brothers. Kurds are not Turk or Arab. We are not Persian either, but We have same race, culture and similar language with Persians. Iran is nothing without kurds, and believe me, I have never seen any Persian to behave superior to me. Some guys here do not live in Iran, and under some not all wrong news they say some wrong things about Iran. Kurds dont like the government just like most Persians, so please please lets separate Iranian people from its government. Iran is consisted of several ethnic groups that are are all Iranian except arabs, Persians, Azeries, Kurds, Lurs, Baluchs etc. If there is a bad thing In Iran it is for all Iranians, not only kurds. To make a long story short, I love my country Iran, and In ct, I have to say that I also consider the Kurds of Turkey, Iraq and Syria Iranian because their race is Iranian, their language is Iranian, and also their culture, like Nowruz, is Iranian.

Kurds and persians live in Iranian peninsula for thousands of years. Kurds are Medes ethnic group who used to live alongside persians and both are Iranian. Achemenid empire constituted both of these ethnic groups. In ct, Cyrus the greats ther was a Persian and her mother was MedesKurd.

Difference Between Oxycontin and Oxycodone emails

and relegions in the past before years ago before muslims invade persian empire .god damn arabs

Hey , kurds in origin are yezdanism but persian are shia muslims , kurds are not aryan iran or turan turkish , and persian never had a state while kurds had vassals and small kingdoms

Mr Mard* Man Pyaw پـيــاو Mann

What happened to all of the? They ALL tortured then savagely killed.


read about Mahabad Republic And Qazi Muhammad in s and Kurdish revolt in s and

Persians stole what religion and culture from Kurds? You out of your mind or what. Persians stole from a small minority compare to them and based their religion and culture on theirs eh lol interesting. Thats why Kurds are like Jews. Still without a land

Bab, bav* Padar* Father Bab باب Vater

Ba Bad Wind Ba با Blähung, Wind

For example Door is in Kurdish Derî and Derî is comes from the word outside der ve in Kurdish we can translate it as thing that separates outside

Dot, Keç Dokhtar*DaugtherKiç کچ Tochter

Both ethnic groups have their own language, Kurdish and Farsi. Furthermore, both languages are part of the Iranian language and Western Iranian language as a subclassification.

Lol stop this bull!! Kurds are not turks.. Not Arabs.. Not Persians.. But kinda cousin with Persian.. Turks are Mongolian descents. And Kurds have nothing in comment with Turks! Whoever wrote this bull , it must be changed immediately..

Kur, Pis Pesar Son Kur كور مام Sohn

Just like Ali I stopped reading after Kurds are of Turkish descent. We are all HUMAN. And we should not be racist. BUT Its a lie. KURDS are IRANIAN people and have been living alongside PERSIANS for thousands of years just like brothers. AND real PERSIANS And real KURDS die for each other. Turks are also great people. we are all human. and that matters. BUT kurds are never TURKDS.

Go and get deal with something pleasing you. But not this subject.

Also Brother in Kurdish is Bra as it in Persian Bradar and originally it might come from the root Bira that is with vein/By vein; with bloodvessel, by blood vessel. So we can expand/translate it as Who comes from same vein/blood vessel. And the nearest meaing in Kurdish for ther and der in Brother, Brader is the Kurdish word Der which means outside. So it is impossible that Kurds have just dropped it from usage as Persians uses it. Because it is already in use by Kurds as the meaning outside. Here some Kurdish and Persian words for your comparison

The Kurds live in Iran, but they are considered a minority in the country. Aside from Iran, they also live in the neighboring countries of Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and other countries forming an unofficial settlement called Kurdistan. Meanwhile, the Persians are considered the main people of Iran. They are not confined to the country and can be found in countries from Iran to Afghanistan.

I guarantee you that you dont even know about your own culture never mind Persians , Persians were Sunni until th century ,then converted to Shiism, not by Arabs but by Persians , unlike you Kurds that call your daughters names like alla us Persians converted to Islam but stayed Persian even before Shiism. At the when Persian converted to Islam. Cyrus the great was no Kurd, Sassanian empire were no kurds, Zoroastrianism never came from a Kurd. Nor has anything to do yazadnsim that some of you Kurds still practis . Sorry pal Persians were not based on a Kurd nor came from one. We are called Iran which means land of aryans not anything else. Our language isnt half Farsi half Arabic either, Syrians were speaking Greek before they got conquered by Arabs, thats a ct, sorry so your language aint got tons of Arabic words in it eh? So does Turkish. So does Farsi! Why ? Because of the holy Quran and the influence of the Arabic language. Farsi has about thousand borrowed French words, that doesnt make us French!!! Where is the Kurdish land ? Persians are based on Kurds ok? So where is your main land? Why arent Persians scattered all over countries, like Syria, turkey and etc.because we are Persians and our land is one country called Iran and we live with our fellow people that call them selves Iranian with different s like Azaries , Armanians, Kurds and etc . Thats why unlike other countries like Iraq , when a war happens we all stick together and fight under one flag, we dont separate like whats going on in Iraq..please go read some history, I dont know what your mom and dad are telling you. Its bsPersians came from Kurds, wow nuta

Although Persian is counted as an HindoEuropean language it includes a lot of Arabic and Kurdish vocabulary. Kurdish is more ancient than Persian.

I stopped reading after Kurds are of Turkish descent. Get your cts straight; Kurds are an Iranian people just like Persians.

Kurds are known to have endured repression from other ethnic groups. In contrast, Persians are mous as conquerors and warriors in ancient history.

Difference Between Prince William and Prince Harry

Difference Between Love and In Love emails

Yes Kurdish is a base Language in IndoEuropean mily. I made a research that Kurdish a sole language rather that Persian. We say bra for son they sey bradar. We say xweh for sister they say kwahar we say khor or tav for sun they say af or khorshid. Kurdish is uniqe not even can be comparable with Persian.

Kurds and Persians are two ethnic people that primarily live in the country of Iran. As ethnic groups, they are mostly affiliated with their culture and traditions rather than their religious affiliations. The two ethnic groups belong to the four major ethnic people living in Iran.  The other ethnic groups are Arabs and Turks.

Grîn Beriistan Cry Grî ‫گری‬ Weinen, Schrei

See more about ethnic groupLanguagereligionGet New Comparisons in your inbox

Based on my knowledge Kurds lived in Iran before Turks Then Turks migrated. One of the primative civilization is related to Kurdish people Hegmataneh. It seems that as long as Kurds dont have their own country, they are not truely recognized!

To the article writer What wrong with you man. Turkish is an Altaic Language. Kurdish is IndoEuropena language. I mean no relation

The two people also speak different languages. The Kurds speak in Kurdish while Persians speak Farsi, the dominant language in Iran. Both the Kurdish and Persian languages are part of the Iranian language, specifically the Western Iranian language.

Both ethnic groups have their own long histories. However, Kurds have remained nomads most of the time while Persians created settlements, even an empire. Persians are usually concentrated in Iran while the Kurds live in Kurdistan, an unofficial settlement and regarded as a region rather than a country.

Sara, you are now the biggest idiot Ive ever seen on the internet! Persians are Iranian and Kurds are Iranian. The languages are related, like English and German. Arabic got mixed in with all of our languages because they invaded us, just like how Latin words were mixed into Germanic languages like English after the Romans invaded them and spread Christianity. Kurds and Persians are brothers. You are ignorant! I bet youre not even Kurdish, youre probably another Azeri panturk spreading antiIranian propaganda! You SICKEN me!

KURDISTAN, The History of Existence, Resistance, and Liberation by Kurdish leader Abdullah Ocalan is going on in Kurdistan against the Zionist Jewish leaders conspiracies and the occupation of Kurdistan by Persian traitors from TamilIndia, Arab Islamic terrorist criminal from Africa and Turkish genocides criminal from Mongolia. It is no secret anymore that Jewish leader helped Darius son of Hystaspes and Rhodogune to destroy Median Empire note Rhodogune is the mother of Darius, she was the daughter of King Astyages of Medes and Queen Esther of Medes, Queen Esther is Jewish slave girl married king Astyages of Mede. The Zionist Jewish leaders are helping Barzani and Talabani milies to ide Kurd and Kurdistan now. But the war is waged on Kurds by Persian, Arabs, and Turks as these lines are written down in May Tampa, FL USA after years in exile.


on the other hand, KURDS ARE NOT TURKS!!!!. it doesnt need any brag as white is not black!!!. this is a post of some racist turks whom try to melt down Kurdish nationalist

Well you are very wrong. Kurds and Persians are Iranian people their languages are IndoEuropean and Turkish is Altaic. Kurds were living in MiddleEast before Turks came there and Kurds are related with Persians like Irish related with Scottish.

Çav Chashm* Eye Çaw ‫چاو Auge‬

M Zanana Feminine M مى feminin

Kurdish are close to the iranian persians but they are more nomadic and not as strongly organized for centuries like persians. But they share similar language and bloodline. so many yrs ago both these groups fought and thats why persians and kurds are not as close as should be. iranian persians are shiahs and kurds are mostly sunni and kurds are also close to the yazidi people.

Str Satara Star Astera ‫ئستره Stern

Hey man , Kurds are not Turks but Kurds are the new aryans just like the persians you informations is not correct .

Birçî Gorosnagi Hungry Birsî ‫بـرسى Begierig‬, hungrig

Difference Between Islam and Muslim emails

Anîn Awurdan Bring Hawir ‫هاور bringen‬

Written by Celine. and updated on June , Articles on DifferenceBetween are general information, and are not intended to substitute for professional advice. The information is AS IS, WITH ALL FAULTS. User assumes all risk of use, damage, or injury. You agree that we have no liability for any damages.

Lol, where did you get your information from?!

Hi, Kurds are as Turk as Whisky is German. It has been the most ridiculous comment I have ever heard. No offence, but brush up on your knowledge on ethnology. Persians and Kurds are ethnologically considered cousins due to numerous similarities in their histories. Turks are simply poles apart. I mean it is absurd to bring up such topics unless you want to make a clown out of yourself.

Hey guys let me tell you the TRUTH. Im Persian, and I die for my dear Kurd friends. F..k the government. Kurds are Iranian just like Persians and Lurs and Baluchs and Gilaks and Azeries. Iranians are different from Turks and Arabs I respect them, and I dont mean to offend them.

Baran Baran Rain Baran باران regnen

As much as our language some almost the same. Kurds and iranian are not the same people. When the Assyrian empire ruled the land. There were kurds in the north Media and persians in the east Persia. They fought of the Assyrian empire together. And the first king was a median king Kurd. he ruled a few years. But got over throned by cyrus persian. Then the Persian empire began to rise. When the persian were at war whit Greece, the greeks called the Median. Because there were kurd median in the persian army. And the persians kept the name after that. Even when the greeks went to attack persia the were harassed by kurdish archers whom they may have thought to be persians. And the Zoroastrian religion who came from east Kurdistan west Iran and to whom was a kurd and preached in the kurdish areas first. The Persian had their own religion Mithra but the persian says that Zoroastrian is also a persian religion. and as we all know the winner of a war writes the history and not the losers.

I love kurdish people!!! But did they teach you guys this things in school or you acquired them by yourself. Because these are some of the craziest brication I have read in my life and Iam not even persian. I dont even know why I bother leaving a comment here obviously you been mistreated by persians and somehow you are trying to get back at them in this way.

As a Persian speaking Iranian , I love Kurdish speaking people language / culture wise I can relay to Kurdish so much more than Turkish Arabic , there are so many similarities between Persian Kurdish words culture , if Kurdish people were from Turkish descent, Turkish government wouldnt have killed so many of them instead wouldve helped them , Turkish language culture have nothing to do with Kurdish people , via Kurdistan, viva Iran .

Exactly Im laughing reading this . Its all wrong

Dev Dahan Mouth Dam ‫ده م‬ Mund

Both the Persians and the Kurds are two of the major ethnic groups in the country of Iran and in the Middle East. Both have their own unique culture, traditions, and language. Arabs and Turks comprise the other two of the four ethnic groups.

True to that, I completely agree with my bro Sirwan. Iran is the land for Aryans, not just Persians. We live here together with our Kurd brothers. And we all are suffering from our regime its not just Kurds that are being treated bad. I cannot imagine Iran without Kurds. And we can no longer call this country Iran without Kurds. We share the same culture, history and we shaped together the greatest empire that world have ever seen. and everything started since battle of Chaldoran, when parts of Kurdistan took apart from Iran. The ottoman empire got north western parts of Iran and they and arabs have treated them badly since then. Saddam Hussein also killed thousands of innocent Kurdish people who were living in his own country just like what he did to other Iranian people in years of war against Iran.

Brûsk Barq Arabic Lightning Trişka ترشقه Blitz

Kurds did not come from turks. They are indoaryan race like tajiks, pashtuns, persians, afghandari, baluch, yazidi people etc. All their languages are similar.

Mam, ApAmoo, MamPaternal uncleMam مام Onkel

Agir Atash* Fire Agir ‫ئاگر Feuer‬

Kurdish language is in the same mily with Persian and thats for sure that Kurdish culture is closer to Persians. Also Persians, Kurds, Arabs in Levant or even Armenians have very similar cultures.

The Persians descended from the Aryan race, the origin of the modern Persian people. The name Iran itself is the Persian word for the country. The name was first used in as a replacement in Persia. In contrast, Kurds one of the indigenous people of the Mesopotamian plains.

Qic, Hur Kuchak* Small Çûk ‫چووک klein

Is that a brother does to his other brother? Is it okay they ban Kurdish education in Iran?

The turks came in the middle ages and does not have anything to do whit kurd, iranian or arabs. they took land land from greeks, kurds, armenians and the western part of the persian empire whom belonged to the median kurds. The turks belong to Mongolia and came after Djingis Khan era.

Bra Bradar* Brother Bira برا Bruder

The Kurds are mostly ethnic people and do not have any independent religion of their own. On the other hand, Persians have Zoroastrianism as their regional religion.

So to be honest I havent read any further than kurds are from turkish descent.Kurds are Iranian wich means that they are Aryan people.I dont mean to harm any Turks and as you can tell by my name AZADERENazadfreekurdishand erenthe arriventurkishthat I am not full Kurd.My ther is a Kurd and my Mother a Turk but the mainly thing I wanted to tell is that you should research more a little bit.

Jîn Zandagi Life Jîn ‫ژ‬ين Leben

Kurt, Kin Kutah Short Kurt كورت kurz

Kurds are NOT Turkish. The iranis in the south of Iran have stolen Kurdish history and try to link themselves with Kurds for the most part. Everyone knows the language of the iranis is half Kurdish and half Arab lmo. In the ancient history, all those times you reading about Persians those were actually Kurdish. Persians are not even an ethnicity. They tried so hard to keep calling Kurds their brothers blah blah. Give me a break. Also every one knows that Zoroaster was born from a yezidi mily. its not really racial with Kurds tbh. The soranis also have different language but they are accepted by the bahdinis as Kurds. The reason why Persians will never be accepted is because they are crazy and they have some superiority complex. No the Kurds did not decend from Persians, they did not decend from Turks, nor did they decend from Arabs. Its pretty obvious what happened is the Kurds lived in the North while assyrians in the south. The Arabs came first with Islam. Then the Kurdish empires took form, the different language trees of Kurdish were already there. I am going to guess that the Arabs had some sort of power and that is how the religion of Shia came onto the Persians. Wouldnt that make much more sense? How else will you explain why Persians have half Kurdish and half arabic language. Why Persians are mostly Shia? And why Kurds are in general whiter, blonder and more ed eyes than Persians? Hahaha please. On top of that, the Kurds in Iraq dont give you the respect to call you Farsi or Persians. We call you arabified Kurds. Jus like the sorani. But we gonna take care of our sorani tribes, but Persians are just too racist and violent. Plus your govt created too many lies in your history books in schools for you to even understand. Give up your racism and realize there is no such pure race. Dont make yourself superior to Kurds, you are not. Nobody cares about being aryan. Only an Arab would get a superiority complex himself believe he is somehow special. You can see Kurds are tribalistic. That is how we keep ethnicity while remaining humble and civilized for thousands of years. Though tbh most civilized Kurds dont care about that either. How many times Ive heard from iranis the we are brothers, every response from kurds is we dont kill our brothers. please educate yourself and realize that the Persian ethnicity as you know it today didnt exist during the time the Persian empires existed, they were Kurdish.

Persians are the dominant ethnic group in Iran and considered its native people. Meanwhile, the Kurds are one of the minority ethnic groups. Persians are known to be descendants of the Aryan people while Kurds are one of the indigenous people of the Mesopotamian plains.

Difference Between Catholic Bible and King James Bible

Also you said Kurds, Arabs, Persians and Turks are the people in that region. That is not accurate. You forgot to mention the Turkic people. Not Turk but Turkic who are originally from mongolia and are the uzbekistan, kazakhstan, turkmenistan, turkey, azherbhaijan, tartars, kyrgistan etc.


Difference Between LCD and LED Televisions emails

Xweh Khwahar Sister Xwişk خوشك Schwester

What Saras saying is percent true. Go and read some recent Kurdish history in Iran.

Persians have their own regional religion, Zoroastrianism, aside from the predominant religion of Islam. The Kurds do not have any independent religion, but they are also members of the religions that exist in the Middle East.

Difference Between Ethnicity and Race emails

Difference Between Vitamin D and Vitamin D emails

This whole article is wrong, how can kurds come from turks if turks came from mongolia only thousand years ago while kurds have been in our land over thousand years and iranians came from kurds and persians even stole our religion zoroastrian they claim everything to be theres the media is all ke and lies trying hide the kurdish idenity.

The two terms are descriptions for a person who comes from a certain land. Kurds are known to be someone who lives or is affiliated with Kurdistan or the Kurdish culture. The same is applicable to Persians and their link to Persia now modern Iran and the history and culture of their people.

Both people have a long history as a people. The Kurds are mostly nomads and without a permanent settlement. There is no existing Kurdish nation or state. On the other hand, Persians have a permanent settlement. They have been living in the same land for thousands of years.  An example of this is the Achaemenid Empire that included many countries in its of power. It was later included in the Macedonian Empire under Alexander the Great.

Hey Sîrwan do NOT give a Sîr taste. You seem rather to be a Persian personality / rather a Persian n / rather a very ignorant uneducated Kurdish personality.

Zoroastrianism is belong to kurds not Persians rss. as, The Prophet Zardasht was from Kurdish nationalist. this case is little complicated, because kurds are a part of ancient Persian Groups, and kurds didnt got their independence yet as their country Kurdistan was ided into pieces irani Kurdistan,Syrian,Iraq and turkey. Zardasht Archaeology is located in irani kurdistan the city of hamadan. so it looks like Persian religion! but the reality is above.

we haved same country same relegion same culture very similar to persian or iran people more than turks .kurds are iraninan and will back to them

If you like this article or our site. Please spread the word. Share it with your friends/mily.

persian and kurds are iranian give that look at anicent maps

In comparison, Persians are native Iranians and are considered the more progressive ethnic group compared to the Kurds.

Please note comment moderation is enabled and may delay your comment. There is no need to resubmit your comment.

Hk Tokhmmargh* EggTow ‫تۆو‬ , Helka هيلكه Ei, egg

D, Mak Madar Mother Daye دايه Mutter

Difference Between Goals and Objectives emails

Dotmam DokhtaramooUncles daughterKiçî mam کچ مام Onkel Tochter

Difference Between Objective and Subjective emails

Pismam Pesar AmooCousin Kurî mam كور Sohn des Onkels


Celine. Differences Between Kurds and Persians. DifferenceBetween. June ,

Nr Mardana* Masculine Nr نير maskulin

True to that, I completely agree with my bro Sirwan. Iran is the land for Aryans, not just Persians. We live here together with our Kurd brothers. And we all are suffering from our regime its not just Kurds that are being treated bad. I cannot imagine Iran without Kurds. And we can no longer call this country Iran without Kurds. We share the same culture, history and we shaped together the greatest empire that world have ever seen. and everything started since battle of Chaldoran, when parts of Kurdistan took apart from Iran.

Kenîn Khandidan Laugh Kenîn ‫کـه نـين Lachen‬

Tlî, PçîAngusht Finger Pil پل , Panca پــهنجــه Finger‬

Dlop Raha Kardan Drop Dlop ‫دلوپ Tropfen

Bahoz Tun shada* Tempest Boran* بوران Sturm

Kurds and Turks are diff races man. Turks are turkic and mongolian but kurds are indoaryan persians people. no doubt in that. they are like nomadic persian natives of the region they inhabit. turkic people migrated and invaded the kurds and the lands that were mostly persian land

First of all Kurds arent from Turkish origin. They are Iranian as like as Persians, Balochs, Pesthuns, Osets etc. Some part of Persian history stolen from Kurdish history for example Zoroastrianism is Kurdish religion, Medes are Kurds, Gutian people are Kurds, I.Ardeshir is Kurd, Madig is Kurd etc.

youve said, Persians have their own regional religion, Zoroastrianism. but

little suggestion for you, be critical thinker and do more researches. then edit your article.

Nû Taza, JadidArabic* New Nw ‫نـوێ neu‬

Kurds are more ancient than turks persian arabs we have our own religion ezedi our history go back to bcDifferences Between Kurds and Persiapersian religionns

Spartans Implements of persian cultureDeath

If you completed your subscription and still have not received an email,please contact us.

Find out how the Persians initially had almost no affect against the Spartan soldiers at the Battle of Thermopylae.

By submitting your information, you agree to receive emails from HISTORY and AE Networks. You can opt out at any time.

newsletter for indepth historical articles and videos.

At this time we are unable to complete your subscription.This email address has been previously opted out from receiving any emails from AE Networks. If you changed your mind,please contact usand indicate that you would like to subscribe to HISTORY emails.

You will soon receive an activation email. Once you click on the link, you will be added to our list. If you do not receive this email,please contact us. To ensure delivery to your inbox,add us to your address book.

Find out how the Persians initially had almost no affect against the Spartan soldiers at the Battle of Thermopylae.

, AE Television Networks, LLC. All Rights Reserved.

You will soon receive an email with a direct link to your profile, where you can update your preferences.If you do not receive this email, pleasecontact us.

At this time we are unable to complete your subscription.This email address has been previously opted out from receiving any emails from AE Networks. If you changed your mind,please contact usand indicate that you would like to subscribe to HISTORY emails.

Kurpersian cultured

We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.

What Do the Olympic Rings and Flame Represent?

own large Shʿite population. TheKurdish minority, which had resorted to terrorism in pursuit of its goal of aKurdish state to be carved out of Turkey, Iraq, and Iran, also presented an intracle problem. Finally, the Iraqi government of Saddam Hussein hoped to use the opportunity of Irans apparent

The Kurdish language is a West Iranian language related toPersianandPashto. The Kurds are thought to number from million to million, includingcommunitiesin Armenia,GeorgiaKazakhstanLebanon, Syria, and Europe, but sources for this information differ widely because of differingcriteriaofethnicity, religion, and language; statistics may also be manipulated for political purposes.

Anatolia, the peninsula of land that today constitutes the Asian portion of Turkey. Because of its location at the point where the continents of Asia and Europe meet, Anatolia was, from the beginnings of civilization, a crossroads for numerous peoples migrating or conquering from

There was a problem with your submission. Please try again later.

Areas of Kurdish settlement in Southwest Asia.

Any you add should be original, not copied from other sources.

Noteworthy Bog Bodies And What They Tell Us

Our editors will review what youve submitted, and if it meets our criteria, well add it to the article.

In traditional Kurdish society,marriagewas generally endogamous. In nonurban areas, males usually marry at age and females at age . Households typically consist of ther, mother, and children.Polygamy, permitted byIslamic law, is sometimes practiced, although it is forbidden bycivil lawin Turkey. The strength of theextended milysties to the tribe varies with the way of life. Kurdish womenwho traditionally have been more active in public life than Turkish,Arab, and Iranian womenas well as Kurdish men, have taken advantage of urban educational and employment opportunities, especially in prerevolutionary Iran.

The first Kurdish news appeared in and was published at intervals until . It was revived atIstanbulin when the first Kurdish political club, with anaffiliatedcultural society, was also founded and again in Cairo during World War I. TheTreaty of Svres, drawn up in , provided for an autonomous Kurdistan but was never ratified; theTreaty of Lausanne, which replaced the Treaty of Svres, made no mention of Kurdistan or of the Kurds. Thus the opportunity to unify the Kurds in a nation of their own was lost. Indeed, Kurdistan after the war was more fragmented than before, and various separatist movements arose among Kurdish groups.

Corrections? Updates? Omissions? Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login.

Our editors will review what youve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

Please select which sections you would like to print

Corrections? Updates? Help us improve this article!

The principal unit in traditional Kurdish society was thetribe, typically led by a sheikh or an aga, whose rule was firm. Tribal identification and the sheikhs authority are still felt, though to a lesser degree, in the large urban areas. Detribalization proceeded intermittently as Kurdishculturebecame urbanized and was nominallyassimilatedinto several nations.

Despite their longstanding occupation of a particular region of the world, the Kurds never achieved nationstate status. Their reputation for military prowess has made them much in demand as mercenaries in many armies. The sultanSaladin, best known to the Western world for exploits in theCrusades, epitomizes the Kurdish military reputation.

You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered.

Although estimates of their precise numbers vary, theKurds are reckoned to be the fourth largest ethnic group in the Middle East, following Arabs, Turks, and Persians. There are importantKurdish minorities in Iraq, Iran, Turkey, and Syria, and IraqsKurds are concentrated in

Whats the Difference Between Asian and African Elephants?

Kurds also felt strong assimilationist pressure from the national government in Iran and endured religious persecution by that countrysShʿiteMuslim majority. Shortly afterWorld War II, theSoviet Unionbacked the eslishment of an independent country around the largely Kurdish city ofMahbd, in northwestern Iran. The socalled Republic of Mahbd collapsed after Soviet withdrawal in , but about that same time the Kurdish Democratic Party of Iran KDPI was eslished. Thereafter, the KDPI engaged in lowlevel hostilities with the Iranian government into the st century.

, member of an ethnic and linguistic group living in theTaurus Mountainsof easternAnatolia, theZagros Mountainsof westernArmenia, and otheradjacentareas. Most of the Kurds live incontiguousareas of Iran, Iraq, andTurkeya somewhat loosely defined geographic region generally referred to asKurdistanLand of the Kurds. The name has differentconnotationsin Iran and Iraq, which officially recognize internal entities by this name Irans northwestern province of Kordestn and Iraqs Kurdishautonomousregion. A sizable noncontiguous Kurdish population also exists in theKhorsnregion, situated in Irans northeast.

Kurds Student Encyclopedia Ages and up

Violence and insility in Iraq following the removal of Saddam Hussein and in Syria following the outbreak of civil war in threatened the security of Kurdish communities but also offered new opportunities for Kurds to advance their claims toautonomy. The primary threat to Kurds was the extremistIslamic State in Iraq and the LevantISIL, which captured and occupied territory adjacent to Kurdish areas in Iraq and Syria in . Kurdish fighters in northern Syria entered into heavy fighting with ISIL and quickly proved to be some of the most effective ground forces against the group. Meanwhile, Iraqi Kurdish forces participated in a multinational campaign to expel ISIL from its strongholds in northern and western Iraq.

The Kurdish language and traditional way of life

Error when sending the email. Try again later.

Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions.

thcentury international relations The Soviets in Afghanistan

the Shaṭṭ alʿArab waterway, dissidentKurdish populations in the north of Iraq took advantage of the war to agitate for autonomy. Hussein struck back at theKurds in genocidal shion, bombing their villages with chemical weapons and poison gas. In May Iraq launched a massive surprise attack that drove

With the help of theUnited States, however, the Kurds were able to eslish a safe haven that included most areas of Kurdish settlement in northern Iraq, where the IKDP and Patriotic Union of Kurdistana ction that split from the IKDP in created an autonomous civil authority that was, for the most part, free from interference by the Iraqi government. The Kurds were particularly successful in that countrys elections, held following the ll ofSaddam Husseinand theBaʿth Partyin , and in mid the first session of the Kurdish parliament wasconvenedinIrbl.

Taurus Mountains, mountain range in southern Turkey, a great chain running parallel to the Mediterranean coast. The system extends along a curve from Lake Egridir in the west to the upper reaches of the Euphrates River in the east. Aladağ , feet [, m] in the Taurus

The traditional Kurdish way of life wasnomadic, revolving around sheep and goat herding throughout the Mesopotamian plains and the highlands of Turkey and Iran. Most Kurds practiced only marginal agriculture. The enforcement of national boundaries beginning afterWorld War I impeded the seasonal migrations of the flocks, forcing most of the Kurds to abandon their traditional ways for village life and settled rming; others entered nontraditional employment.

Although the pressure for Kurds toassimilatewas less intense in Iraq where the Kurdish language and culture have been freely practiced, government repression has been the most brutal. Shortlived armed rebellions occurred in Iraq in and , and a lowlevel armed insurgency took place throughout the s under the command ofMuṣṭaf alBarzn, leader of the Iraqi Kurdish Democratic Party IKDP, who had been an officer of the Republic of Mahbd. A iled peace accord with the Iraqi government led to another outbreak of fighting in , but an agreement between Iraq and Iranwhich had been supporting Kurdish effortslater that year led to a collapse of Kurdish resistance. Thousands of Kurds fled to Iran and Turkey. Lowintensity fighting followed. In the late s, IraqsBaʿth Partyinstituted a policy of settling Iraqi Arabs in areas with Kurdish majoritiesparticularly around the oilrich city ofKirkkand uprooting Kurds from those same regions. This policy accelerated in the s as large numbers of Kurds were forcibly relocated, particularly from areas along the Iranian border where Iraqi authorities suspected Kurds were aiding Iranian forces during theIranIraq War. What followed was one of the most brutal episodes in Kurdish history. In a series of operations between March andAugust, codenamed Anl Arabic Spoils, Iraqi forces sought to quell Kurdish resistance; the Iraqis used large quantities of chemical weapons on Kurdish civilians. Although technically it was not part of Anl, one of the largest chemical attacks during that period took place on March in and around the village of Ḥalabjah, when Iraqi troops killed as many as , Kurds with mustard gas and nerve agent. Despite these attacks, Kurds again rebelled following Iraqs defeat in thePersian Gulf War but were again brutally suppressedsparking another mass exodus.

Kurdishnationalismcame about through the conjunction of a variety of ctors, including the British introduction of the concept of private property, the partition of regions of Kurdish settlement by modern neighbouring states, and the influence of British, U.S., and Soviet interests in the Persian Gulf region. These ctors and others combined with the flowering of a nationalist movement among a very small minority of urban,intellectualKurds.

Picking up the pieces of the shattered olive industry near Mosul, Iraq, after Kurdish forces dislodged the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant ISIL in .

At the bottom of the article, feel free to list any sources that support your changes, so that we can fully understand their con. Internet URLs are the best.

The prehistory of the Kurds is poorly known, but their ancestors seem to have inhabited the same upland region for millennia. The records of the early empires ofMesopotamiacontain frequent references to mountain tribes with names resembling Kurd. The Kardouchoi whom the Greek historianXenophonspeaks of inAnabasisthey attacked the Ten Thousand near modern Zkh, Iraq, in bce may have been Kurds, but some scholars dispute this claim. The name Kurd can be dated with certainty to the time of the tribes conversion toIslamin the th centuryce. Most Kurds areSunniMuslims, and among them are many who practiceSufismand other mystical sects.

If you prefer to suggest your own revision of the article, you cango to edit moderequires login.

Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed.

Kurdish Institute A brief survey of The History of the Kurds

An Iraqi Kurdish woman working in a folk museum in Irbl, Iraq, winding lambs wool onto a spool to make handwoven carpets.

Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.

The Kurds of Turkey received unsympathetic treatment at the hands of the government, which tried to deprive them of their Kurdish identity by designating them Mountain Turks, by outlawing the Kurdish language or representing it as adialectof Turkish, and by forbidding them to wear distinctive Kurdish dress in or near the important administrative cities. The Turkish government suppressed Kurdish political agitation in the eastern provinces and encouraged the migration of Kurds to the urbanized western portion of Turkey, thus diluting the concentration of Kurdish population in the uplands. Periodic rebellions occurred, and in Abdullah Öcalanformed theKurdistan Workers Partyknown by its Kurdishacronym, PKK, a Marxist organization dedicated to creating an independent Kurdistan. Operating mainly from eastern Anatolia, PKK fighters engaged in guerrilla operations against government installations and perpetrated frequent acts ofterrorism. PKK attacks and government reprisals led to a state of virtual war in eastern Turkey during the s and s. Following Öcalans capture in , PKK activities were sharply curtailed for several years before the party resumed guerilla activities in . In , under pressure from theEuropean Unionin which Turkey sought membership, the government legalized broadcasts and education in the Kurdish language. Turkey continued to mount military operations against the PKK, including incursions into northern Iraq.

Encyclopdia Britannica articles are written in a neutral objective tone for a general audience.Kurpersian cultured

Zoroaster forgottepersian religionn prophet of the one God

Zoroaster forgottepersian religionn prophet of the one GodThose who might doubt how Persian imperial policy so decisively shaped what we know as Judaism should reflect on the remarkable and first ever declaration of belief in one, universal God by the biblical writer known asSecond Isaiahduring this period. Indeed Isaiah describes King Cyrus as a Messiah and the chosen instrument of Yahweh. Interestingly there is evidence that the Persian imperial policy towards the religion of their subject peoples to allow the traditional name of their gods to be retained but to revise the religions themselves in the of Zoroastrianism was also applied in Babylon and Egypt as well as Palestine.

Born at a time when the peoples of the Iranian plateau were evolving a settled agriculture, Zoroaster broke with the traditional Aryan religions of the region which closely mirrored those of India, and espoused the idea of a one good God Ahura Mazda. What became known eventually in the west as Zoroastrianism was also the first to link religious belief with profound attachment to personal morality. InZoroastrian eschatologythere is much which has become miliar from reading the Jewish and Christian testaments heaven, hell, redemption, the promise of a Sashoyant Messiah, the existence of an evil spirit Ahriman and most striking of all the prospect of a final battle for the salvation of man at the end of time between Ahura Mazda and Ahriman leading to the latters final defeat.

he tiny world wide communities of Zoroastrians are no doubt pleased to get any mention in Cif belief even if it is only to provide alphabetical balance to a list starting with the Bahs. Even those who take a close interest in the more exotic or esoteric of religions tend to have a vague grasp on what the followers of the ancient Persian or maybe Bactrian prophet,ZarathustraZoroaster in Greek born around BC actually believed. This is a great pity since even a nonbeliever must be impressed with the evidence of how the religious ideas first expressed by Zoroaster were fundamental in shaping what emerged as Judaism after the th century BC and thus deeply influenced the other Abrahamic religions Christianity and Islam.

The first encounter between the ancient peoples who developed historical Judaism and the Persian religious ideas of Zoroastrianism seems to have come either during or shortly after thecaptivity in Babylon. It was the Persian king of kings, Cyrus, who liberated the Hebrews from Babylon and one of his successors, Darius, who organised and funded the return of some of the captives probably along with many Persians to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem. Nehemiah and Ezra also reorganised the traditional religion of the Judaeans and Israelites. What emerged was a stricter monotheistic version which was consistent with basic beliefs of the Persian imperial religion Zoroastrianism.

What at the very least were the deep affinities between Zoroastrianism and Judaism goes a long way to explain what over the centuries were the close and friendly relations between Persians and Jews. The influence of th century religiouspolitical ideologies have poisoned that relationship. Perhaps a greater acknowledgement by Jews, Christians and Muslims of their Persian Zoroastrian inheritance would be a step to improving those relationships.

The Persian influence onJudaismwas powerful and long lasting. Certainly the profound belief in the end of days exhibited by the Dead Sea Scroll communities in the immediately preChristian era and indeed the s employed by the Christian evangelist, John, in his Apocalypse, a clear continuity of influence.

The main contact between westerners and Zoroastrians came in India where they were known asParseesPersians, descendants of those who took part in a large scale migration from Persia after the Muslim conquest of that country. Zoroastrians were held quite wrongly to worship fire because they kept a permanent flame in their temples. Some even questioned whether they were monotheists at all because Ahriman was referred to as an evil god. But all the Abrahamic religions have also struggled to explain evil in the world which is why they gave Satan an important role.

Some claim that a belief in monotheism in Judea developed a little before the Babylonian conquest and exile. But although there is evidence for a centralisation of the different Canaanite cults into the worship of Yahweh in the capital Jerusalem over this period the most which can be said was that a form ofmonolatry, a belief in one God for a particular people had emerged.

persian culturePersian Culture Meetups

Persian Iranian, Tajik, Afghan Cultural Events in NYC

Persian friends in MD, VA, DCRockville, MD

Find out whats happening in Persian Culture Meetup groups around the world and start meeting up with the ones near you.

Persian Food, Culture and Language in Vancouverpersian culturePersian Culture Meetups

best replica watches |