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own large Shʿite population. TheKurdish minority, which had resorted to terrorism in pursuit of its goal of aKurdish state to be carved out of Turkey, Iraq, and Iran, also presented an intracle problem. Finally, the Iraqi government of Saddam Hussein hoped to use the opportunity of Irans apparent

The Kurdish language is a West Iranian language related toPersianandPashto. The Kurds are thought to number from million to million, includingcommunitiesin Armenia,GeorgiaKazakhstanLebanon, Syria, and Europe, but sources for this information differ widely because of differingcriteriaofethnicity, religion, and language; statistics may also be manipulated for political purposes.

Anatolia, the peninsula of land that today constitutes the Asian portion of Turkey. Because of its location at the point where the continents of Asia and Europe meet, Anatolia was, from the beginnings of civilization, a crossroads for numerous peoples migrating or conquering from

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Areas of Kurdish settlement in Southwest Asia.

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In traditional Kurdish society,marriagewas generally endogamous. In nonurban areas, males usually marry at age and females at age . Households typically consist of ther, mother, and children.Polygamy, permitted byIslamic law, is sometimes practiced, although it is forbidden bycivil lawin Turkey. The strength of theextended milysties to the tribe varies with the way of life. Kurdish womenwho traditionally have been more active in public life than Turkish,Arab, and Iranian womenas well as Kurdish men, have taken advantage of urban educational and employment opportunities, especially in prerevolutionary Iran.

The first Kurdish news appeared in and was published at intervals until . It was revived atIstanbulin when the first Kurdish political club, with anaffiliatedcultural society, was also founded and again in Cairo during World War I. TheTreaty of Svres, drawn up in , provided for an autonomous Kurdistan but was never ratified; theTreaty of Lausanne, which replaced the Treaty of Svres, made no mention of Kurdistan or of the Kurds. Thus the opportunity to unify the Kurds in a nation of their own was lost. Indeed, Kurdistan after the war was more fragmented than before, and various separatist movements arose among Kurdish groups.

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The principal unit in traditional Kurdish society was thetribe, typically led by a sheikh or an aga, whose rule was firm. Tribal identification and the sheikhs authority are still felt, though to a lesser degree, in the large urban areas. Detribalization proceeded intermittently as Kurdishculturebecame urbanized and was nominallyassimilatedinto several nations.

Despite their longstanding occupation of a particular region of the world, the Kurds never achieved nationstate status. Their reputation for military prowess has made them much in demand as mercenaries in many armies. The sultanSaladin, best known to the Western world for exploits in theCrusades, epitomizes the Kurdish military reputation.

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Although estimates of their precise numbers vary, theKurds are reckoned to be the fourth largest ethnic group in the Middle East, following Arabs, Turks, and Persians. There are importantKurdish minorities in Iraq, Iran, Turkey, and Syria, and IraqsKurds are concentrated in

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Kurds also felt strong assimilationist pressure from the national government in Iran and endured religious persecution by that countrysShʿiteMuslim majority. Shortly afterWorld War II, theSoviet Unionbacked the eslishment of an independent country around the largely Kurdish city ofMahbd, in northwestern Iran. The socalled Republic of Mahbd collapsed after Soviet withdrawal in , but about that same time the Kurdish Democratic Party of Iran KDPI was eslished. Thereafter, the KDPI engaged in lowlevel hostilities with the Iranian government into the st century.

, member of an ethnic and linguistic group living in theTaurus Mountainsof easternAnatolia, theZagros Mountainsof westernArmenia, and otheradjacentareas. Most of the Kurds live incontiguousareas of Iran, Iraq, andTurkeya somewhat loosely defined geographic region generally referred to asKurdistanLand of the Kurds. The name has differentconnotationsin Iran and Iraq, which officially recognize internal entities by this name Irans northwestern province of Kordestn and Iraqs Kurdishautonomousregion. A sizable noncontiguous Kurdish population also exists in theKhorsnregion, situated in Irans northeast.

Kurds Student Encyclopedia Ages and up

Violence and insility in Iraq following the removal of Saddam Hussein and in Syria following the outbreak of civil war in threatened the security of Kurdish communities but also offered new opportunities for Kurds to advance their claims toautonomy. The primary threat to Kurds was the extremistIslamic State in Iraq and the LevantISIL, which captured and occupied territory adjacent to Kurdish areas in Iraq and Syria in . Kurdish fighters in northern Syria entered into heavy fighting with ISIL and quickly proved to be some of the most effective ground forces against the group. Meanwhile, Iraqi Kurdish forces participated in a multinational campaign to expel ISIL from its strongholds in northern and western Iraq.

The Kurdish language and traditional way of life

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thcentury international relations The Soviets in Afghanistan

the Shaṭṭ alʿArab waterway, dissidentKurdish populations in the north of Iraq took advantage of the war to agitate for autonomy. Hussein struck back at theKurds in genocidal shion, bombing their villages with chemical weapons and poison gas. In May Iraq launched a massive surprise attack that drove

With the help of theUnited States, however, the Kurds were able to eslish a safe haven that included most areas of Kurdish settlement in northern Iraq, where the IKDP and Patriotic Union of Kurdistana ction that split from the IKDP in created an autonomous civil authority that was, for the most part, free from interference by the Iraqi government. The Kurds were particularly successful in that countrys elections, held following the ll ofSaddam Husseinand theBaʿth Partyin , and in mid the first session of the Kurdish parliament wasconvenedinIrbl.

Taurus Mountains, mountain range in southern Turkey, a great chain running parallel to the Mediterranean coast. The system extends along a curve from Lake Egridir in the west to the upper reaches of the Euphrates River in the east. Aladağ , feet [, m] in the Taurus

The traditional Kurdish way of life wasnomadic, revolving around sheep and goat herding throughout the Mesopotamian plains and the highlands of Turkey and Iran. Most Kurds practiced only marginal agriculture. The enforcement of national boundaries beginning afterWorld War I impeded the seasonal migrations of the flocks, forcing most of the Kurds to abandon their traditional ways for village life and settled rming; others entered nontraditional employment.

Although the pressure for Kurds toassimilatewas less intense in Iraq where the Kurdish language and culture have been freely practiced, government repression has been the most brutal. Shortlived armed rebellions occurred in Iraq in and , and a lowlevel armed insurgency took place throughout the s under the command ofMuṣṭaf alBarzn, leader of the Iraqi Kurdish Democratic Party IKDP, who had been an officer of the Republic of Mahbd. A iled peace accord with the Iraqi government led to another outbreak of fighting in , but an agreement between Iraq and Iranwhich had been supporting Kurdish effortslater that year led to a collapse of Kurdish resistance. Thousands of Kurds fled to Iran and Turkey. Lowintensity fighting followed. In the late s, IraqsBaʿth Partyinstituted a policy of settling Iraqi Arabs in areas with Kurdish majoritiesparticularly around the oilrich city ofKirkkand uprooting Kurds from those same regions. This policy accelerated in the s as large numbers of Kurds were forcibly relocated, particularly from areas along the Iranian border where Iraqi authorities suspected Kurds were aiding Iranian forces during theIranIraq War. What followed was one of the most brutal episodes in Kurdish history. In a series of operations between March andAugust, codenamed Anl Arabic Spoils, Iraqi forces sought to quell Kurdish resistance; the Iraqis used large quantities of chemical weapons on Kurdish civilians. Although technically it was not part of Anl, one of the largest chemical attacks during that period took place on March in and around the village of Ḥalabjah, when Iraqi troops killed as many as , Kurds with mustard gas and nerve agent. Despite these attacks, Kurds again rebelled following Iraqs defeat in thePersian Gulf War but were again brutally suppressedsparking another mass exodus.

Kurdishnationalismcame about through the conjunction of a variety of ctors, including the British introduction of the concept of private property, the partition of regions of Kurdish settlement by modern neighbouring states, and the influence of British, U.S., and Soviet interests in the Persian Gulf region. These ctors and others combined with the flowering of a nationalist movement among a very small minority of urban,intellectualKurds.

Picking up the pieces of the shattered olive industry near Mosul, Iraq, after Kurdish forces dislodged the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant ISIL in .

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The prehistory of the Kurds is poorly known, but their ancestors seem to have inhabited the same upland region for millennia. The records of the early empires ofMesopotamiacontain frequent references to mountain tribes with names resembling Kurd. The Kardouchoi whom the Greek historianXenophonspeaks of inAnabasisthey attacked the Ten Thousand near modern Zkh, Iraq, in bce may have been Kurds, but some scholars dispute this claim. The name Kurd can be dated with certainty to the time of the tribes conversion toIslamin the th centuryce. Most Kurds areSunniMuslims, and among them are many who practiceSufismand other mystical sects.

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Kurdish Institute A brief survey of The History of the Kurds

An Iraqi Kurdish woman working in a folk museum in Irbl, Iraq, winding lambs wool onto a spool to make handwoven carpets.

Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.

The Kurds of Turkey received unsympathetic treatment at the hands of the government, which tried to deprive them of their Kurdish identity by designating them Mountain Turks, by outlawing the Kurdish language or representing it as adialectof Turkish, and by forbidding them to wear distinctive Kurdish dress in or near the important administrative cities. The Turkish government suppressed Kurdish political agitation in the eastern provinces and encouraged the migration of Kurds to the urbanized western portion of Turkey, thus diluting the concentration of Kurdish population in the uplands. Periodic rebellions occurred, and in Abdullah Öcalanformed theKurdistan Workers Partyknown by its Kurdishacronym, PKK, a Marxist organization dedicated to creating an independent Kurdistan. Operating mainly from eastern Anatolia, PKK fighters engaged in guerrilla operations against government installations and perpetrated frequent acts ofterrorism. PKK attacks and government reprisals led to a state of virtual war in eastern Turkey during the s and s. Following Öcalans capture in , PKK activities were sharply curtailed for several years before the party resumed guerilla activities in . In , under pressure from theEuropean Unionin which Turkey sought membership, the government legalized broadcasts and education in the Kurdish language. Turkey continued to mount military operations against the PKK, including incursions into northern Iraq.

Encyclopdia Britannica articles are written in a neutral objective tone for a general audience.Kurpersian cultured

Zoroaster forgottepersian religionn prophet of the one God

Zoroaster forgottepersian religionn prophet of the one GodThose who might doubt how Persian imperial policy so decisively shaped what we know as Judaism should reflect on the remarkable and first ever declaration of belief in one, universal God by the biblical writer known asSecond Isaiahduring this period. Indeed Isaiah describes King Cyrus as a Messiah and the chosen instrument of Yahweh. Interestingly there is evidence that the Persian imperial policy towards the religion of their subject peoples to allow the traditional name of their gods to be retained but to revise the religions themselves in the of Zoroastrianism was also applied in Babylon and Egypt as well as Palestine.

Born at a time when the peoples of the Iranian plateau were evolving a settled agriculture, Zoroaster broke with the traditional Aryan religions of the region which closely mirrored those of India, and espoused the idea of a one good God Ahura Mazda. What became known eventually in the west as Zoroastrianism was also the first to link religious belief with profound attachment to personal morality. InZoroastrian eschatologythere is much which has become miliar from reading the Jewish and Christian testaments heaven, hell, redemption, the promise of a Sashoyant Messiah, the existence of an evil spirit Ahriman and most striking of all the prospect of a final battle for the salvation of man at the end of time between Ahura Mazda and Ahriman leading to the latters final defeat.

he tiny world wide communities of Zoroastrians are no doubt pleased to get any mention in Cif belief even if it is only to provide alphabetical balance to a list starting with the Bahs. Even those who take a close interest in the more exotic or esoteric of religions tend to have a vague grasp on what the followers of the ancient Persian or maybe Bactrian prophet,ZarathustraZoroaster in Greek born around BC actually believed. This is a great pity since even a nonbeliever must be impressed with the evidence of how the religious ideas first expressed by Zoroaster were fundamental in shaping what emerged as Judaism after the th century BC and thus deeply influenced the other Abrahamic religions Christianity and Islam.

The first encounter between the ancient peoples who developed historical Judaism and the Persian religious ideas of Zoroastrianism seems to have come either during or shortly after thecaptivity in Babylon. It was the Persian king of kings, Cyrus, who liberated the Hebrews from Babylon and one of his successors, Darius, who organised and funded the return of some of the captives probably along with many Persians to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem. Nehemiah and Ezra also reorganised the traditional religion of the Judaeans and Israelites. What emerged was a stricter monotheistic version which was consistent with basic beliefs of the Persian imperial religion Zoroastrianism.

What at the very least were the deep affinities between Zoroastrianism and Judaism goes a long way to explain what over the centuries were the close and friendly relations between Persians and Jews. The influence of th century religiouspolitical ideologies have poisoned that relationship. Perhaps a greater acknowledgement by Jews, Christians and Muslims of their Persian Zoroastrian inheritance would be a step to improving those relationships.

The Persian influence onJudaismwas powerful and long lasting. Certainly the profound belief in the end of days exhibited by the Dead Sea Scroll communities in the immediately preChristian era and indeed the s employed by the Christian evangelist, John, in his Apocalypse, a clear continuity of influence.

The main contact between westerners and Zoroastrians came in India where they were known asParseesPersians, descendants of those who took part in a large scale migration from Persia after the Muslim conquest of that country. Zoroastrians were held quite wrongly to worship fire because they kept a permanent flame in their temples. Some even questioned whether they were monotheists at all because Ahriman was referred to as an evil god. But all the Abrahamic religions have also struggled to explain evil in the world which is why they gave Satan an important role.

Some claim that a belief in monotheism in Judea developed a little before the Babylonian conquest and exile. But although there is evidence for a centralisation of the different Canaanite cults into the worship of Yahweh in the capital Jerusalem over this period the most which can be said was that a form ofmonolatry, a belief in one God for a particular people had emerged.

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persian cultureThe timeless appeal of the Persian rug

Foreign invaders, rock and rollers, and other menacing creatures have tramped, tread, and indulged to excess on the floral sprays and undulating patterns of this little Iranian masterpiece, which if history be any guide will come to see many more tales woven upon it in time.

Even on todays runways, Persian rugs and Persian rugrelated designs continue to impress shionistas. Aside from some of Suis designs, Hermes Persianinspired Tabriz collection from named after the Iranian city, and Givenchys Persian rugobsessed authumn/winter collection, Alexander McQueen autumn/winter is also worth noting for a lush headtotoe Persian rug getup, as is Dutch designer Marlou Breuls, who bagged the peoples choice award at the MercedesBenz Fashion Week in Amsterdam for an outfit largely composed of an actual Persian rug. Other labels including Etro and Liam Gallaghers Pretty Green have also long been extensive use of paisley in their designs.

Adored for their intricate designs, sumptuous colours, and inimile craftsmanship not to mention their investment value Persian rugs have not only found their way into households and interiors the world over, but also onto catwalks and concert stages, as well as in scores of artworks.

As with the highheeled shoes introduced to Europe by Iranian cavalrymen, and the later intuation with Iranian philosophy, ancient religion, and literature during the Enlightenment, Europeans in all corners of the continent were going gaga over Persian rugs.

Poetry, wine, and song such splendid things have, for millennia, constituted the very essence of the saffronstrewn Iranian soul and psyche.

Pharnabazus appeared dressed in clothes that would have been worth a lot of gold, Xenophon remarks in reference to a Persiansatrapin his Hellenica.And then his servants came forward to spread down for him the kind of soft rugs on which the Persians sit.

While Alexander may have burned to oblivion many of those soft rugs when he torched down Persepolis, the Persian rug like many other aspects of Iranian art and architecture not only survived, but thrived, too. In the centuries that followed, rugs continued to be associated with luxury, as well as indigenous folk culture. But it wasnt until the golden age ushered in by Shah Abbas the Great of the Savid dynasty in the th Century that the Persian rug truly became thePersian rug.

And, while Sadighis comments are certainly disheartening, judging from its enduring popularity and the many luxurious and stylish associations it enjoys, the Persian rug or, at least, theideaof the Persian rug isnt going to bite the dust anytime soon.

Prior to his reign, many of Europes carpets came from Ottoman Turkey due to its proximity, but, as a result of various reforms and treaties brought about by Shah Abbas r. , as well as Western colonial interests, the iles industry was given a muchneeded jolt, and began operating on a scale as never before seen. Shah Abbas really revived the carpetproduction industry, says Dr. Aime Froom, curator of the forthcoming Bestowing Beauty exhibition of Iranian artects at the Houston Museum of Fine Arts. Among many other items from the Sixth Century to the th Century, two showstoppers will be on view at the exhibition; a rug that once belonged to Italys King Umberto, as well as an animalthemed one from the Savid era.

Visionary designer Paul Poiret invented the catwalk and freed women from corsets

According to specialist and dealer Anahita Sadighi, owner of Berlins Arts of Asia, Chinese and Indian varieties have been a problem since the Revolution. Important makers left the country and moved to India, Pakistan, and China, resulting in the spread of cheaply produced, lowquality carpets, she says. Persian carpets had always been regarded as highly prestigious luxury goods that only the elite could afford. This changed dramatically after the shift.

View of Credit Houston Museum of Fine Arts

From the reign of Shah Abbas onwards, Persian rugs can be seen in works of master artists of the Dutch Golden Age and Flemish Baroque periods like Vermeer, Terborch, and Rubens. In Vermeers Young Woman with a Water Pitcherc. , for instance, the pitcher in question rests, according to the Met Museum, on a soft and thickly ured Persian carpet. The aristocratand jeweller Sir John Chardin, who visited Iran during the reign of Shah Abbas II, writes at length about rugs and other iles in his classic travelogue, and Virginia Woolfs genderbending protagonist Orlando was known to own some Persian rugs of his own as an ageless androgyne in Elizabethan England.

In spite of its domestic woes, the Persian rug still, as it has for aeons, holds a timeless, luxurious, opulent and extravagant allure and appeal.

Having, as usual, withstood the vagaries of time and fortune, Persian carpets once again found themselves all the rage in the th Century. In , the renowned Frenchhautecouturedesigner Paul Poiret hosted his Thousand and Second Night alternatively known as the Persian Fte a lavish, overthetop Persianthemed ball in the garden of his Paris residence. In addition to the extravagant Persianinspired outfits and congeries of exotic animals, there were, of course, choice Persian rugs laid out to complete the Persian effect.

Trade as well as exchanges in general with Europe increased, and the English, French, and Dutch, amongst others, were only too willing to lounge on their newfound luxuries from the land of Shakespeares Sophy Savid.

Bestowing Beauty Masterpieces from Persian Lands is on at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston until February ,

While these, undoubtedly, are some of the things for which Iranian culture is known and celebrated, perhaps no element of it is as recognisable and striking particularly abroad as Persian rugs and iles.

Theres something so magical about it, says Froom. It pervades so many different aspects of life.

Far from being a recent phenomenon, the scination with these iles is a history nearly as illustrious as the woven wonders themselves.

As for Persianrug patterns like paisley, which have become ubiquitous in shion and design, Suis words echo Frooms [Paisley] is so beautiful its not that you either like it or donteveryonelikes it I think theres a reason its been so successful in carpeting its a pattern you can really live with.

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This isnt to say that only Westerners have been intuated for centuries with Persian rugs, or that theyre seen as commonplace among Iranians.

In Iran, as well as in the Iranian diaspora, contemporary artists have been inspired by Persian rugs, and have employed related themes in their works. Babak Kazemis Exit of Shirin and Farhadseries, for instance, makes beautiful use of Persian rug ry in his mixedmedia photography, while diasporabased artists like Germanys Anahita Razmi and Americas Sara Rahbar have used actual Persian rugs in installation pieces dealing with their identities.

Persian rugs earned the spotlight elsewhere, too. In the s and s, acts like Crosby, Stills, Nash, and Young and the Grateful Dead performed on Persianrugstrewn floors, while in more recent years, luminaries such as Eric Clapton, and the late Tom Petty and Leonard Cohen were spotted crooning away on them onstage. Still today, stages are often strewn with them while artists strum and sing away.

Some decades later, in the swinging s, the scination reached new s. Iranian patterns such as paisley or Persian pickles an indigenous Persianrug staple were all the rage amongst the hitmakers of the day, who often sourced paisley shirts and other garments of Iranian origin e.g. kaftans from boutiques like Granny Takes a Trip on Londons Kings Road, and Kleptomania on Carnaby Street. According to veteran designer Anna Sui, who recently enjoyed a retrospective at Londons Fashion and Textile Museum in the s, paisley was kind ofit. As a kid, I saw all the rock stars wearing paisley, like Bob Dylan, the Rolling Stones, and the Beatles. In the late s and early s, leading shion publications like GQand Vogue,as well as lesserknown ones such as Honey,visited Iran to stage exotic photoshoots in environs like Eshan and Persepolis. Needless to say, there were rugs aplenty.

View of Credit Houston Museum of Fine Arts

From contemporary art to shion and even music, the symbolism of the mous Persian rug pervades in many of aspects of modern life beyond interior decoration, says Joobin Bekhrad.

View of Credit The Metropolitan Museum of Art

All, however, is not well in Paradise or,pairidaeza,as it was originally known in Old Persian. Even after the lifting of many crippling sanctions, the Persianrug industry is under threat from cheaper ctorymade alternatives from China and India, as well as a relative loss in interest from some middleclass Iranians, who are opting for other home dcor. Chinese rugs may be emblematic of having made it to Iggy PopHere comes my Chinese rug! he and David Bowie howl in the song Success on s Lust for Life but to weavers of Persian rugs, who knot them entirely by hand in an entirely organic process using natural dyes and sheeps wool, they are inferior substitutes threatening not only their livelihood and way of life many local producers are, as the Scythians were, nomads, but also a priceless aspect of their heritage.

While the earliestknown carpet wasnt discovered in modernday Iran, its story concerns the region and the Iranian people nonetheless. Dating back to the Fifth Century B.C., the Pazyryk carpet was discovered in the s in Siberia amongst other treasures of the Scythians an ethnic Iranic people, like the Persians and Kurds, as well as the Alans of Georgia and Russia, for instance. It was well preserved in ice. Aside from the Scythians Iranic ethnicity, archaeologists have surmised that the carpet itself may have found its way to Siberia from Persepolis in Iran, as the motifs featured on it bear a striking resemblance to those that can still be seen around the ancient Persian capital. Even in ancient times, as Greek writers like Xenophon attest to, the Persians were known for their carpets.

How paisley went from Persia to Scotland to shion staple

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Headlipersian culturenes

The Tehran project aims to look at Tehran from the point of view of the spaces that it occupies, both physical and metaphorical. This will allow the project to change focus, at times concentrating on micro studies of language and religion, and at others, zooming away to consider urban occupation and city planning. Inbetween the two, matters of ethnolinguistic make up and their relations to the occupation patterns, as well as specialized topics such as health and environmental issues can be studied in the city, based on their framing on a macro level and their studies on a micro one.

One of the most remarkable empires and civilizations of the first millennium CE was that of the Sasanian Empire. As one of the two great powers of late antiquity, the Sasanian domain eventually encompassed not only modern day Iran and Iraq, but it also controlled or influenced the greater part of Central Asia Afghanistan, Tukremenestan, Uzbekestan, Caucasus Republic of Azerbijan, Armenia and Georgia and the Near East Syria, Arabia, Persian Gulf Arab states, Israel and Egypt.

The Digital Archive of Brief notes Iran Review DABIR is an open access, peerreviewed online journal published by the Dr. Samuel M. Jordan Center for Persian Studies and Culture at the University of California, Irvine. DABIR aims to quickly and efficiently publish brief notes and reviews relating to the premodern world in contact with Iran and Persianate cultures. The journal accepts submissions on art history, archaeology, history, linguistics, literature, manuscript studies, numismatics, philology and religion, from Jaxartes to the Mediterranean and from the Sumerian period through to and including the Savid era BCE CE. Work dealing with later periods can be considered on request.

Jordan Center for Persian Studies Culture has recently published a new book and an audio CD by our poetinresidence, Sheida Mohamadi

Jordan Center for Persian Studies Scholar in Residence Dr. Mahmoud Omidsalar

The Samuel Jordan Center for Persian Studies and Culture, originally eslished by the School of Humanities in collaboration with the Claire Trevor School of the Arts, became a campus center in January . Dedicated to drawing on the strengths of the entire UC Irvine campus, the Center focuses on interdisciplinary research projects that bridge the arts, humanities, engineering, medicine, and the sciences.

UC Irvines Jordan Center for Persian Studies and Cultures two new publications King of the Seven Climes A History of the Ancient Iranian World BCE CE and India and Iran in the Longue Duree have been published and are now available on Amazon for purchase.


k grant funds public symposia and lectures on ancient Iranian history, Persian language and literature

Professor Touraj Daryaee, the Director of the Dr. Samuel M. Jordan Center for Persian Studies and Culture at UC Irvine, speaks about the Persian Gulf.

k grant funds public symposia and lectures on ancient Iranian history and civilization.

UCI Humanities Samuel Jordan Center for Persian Studies and Culture

UCI Ph.D. candidates receive Elah Omidyar MirDjalali Fellowships for Excellence in Persian Studies from Roshan Cultural Heritage Institute

Holder will collaborate with Jordan Center for Persian Studies Culture

A group of Iranian physicians of Kaiser Permanente came together to fund the opening of the Dr. Samuel M. Jordan Center for Persian Studies Culture library at the University of California, Irvine.

The renowned scholar of Persian epics and the Shahnameh, Dr. Mahmoud Omidsalar, is the Jordan Center for Persian Studies Scholar in Residence.

We are happy to announce the publication of Dr. Peyman Nojoumians Persian Learner series at the Jordan Center for Persian Studies at UC Irvine.

A short film by Dr. Touraj Daryaee, the Director of the Dr. Samuel M. Jordan Center for Persian Studies and Culture at UC Irvine about the history and usage of the name of the Persian Gulf.Headlipersian culturenes

persian cultureGreece culture and Persian culture

Common people or ordinary citizens of Rome, whose tribunes gained political power in struggle against the patricians

Eslished by Cyrus the Great by BCE;across northern ME into NW india;advanced iron technology;dev new religionZoroastrianism;conquered by Alexander the Great; later becomes the Sassanid Empire

Sparta and Athens two leading citystates who fought against each other in the Peloponnesian Wars, which weakened Greek citystates and left them vulnerable to outside invasion by Philip of Macedonia and later his son Alexander the Great

Three devastating conflicts between Romans and Carthaginians over political and commercial supremacy in the western Mediterranean regions fought between and BCE. The rivalry ended after Roman forces razed the city of Carthage, salted the surrounding earth to render it unfit for agriculture and settlement and forced many of the survivors into slavery

Greek art and culture merged w/ other Middle eastern forms;name derived b/c Greeks known as Hellenes; Hellenistic period saw the consolidation of Greek civ even after the political decline of the peninsula itself

Jews, Semitic, who developed st monotheistic religion w/ single God, Jehovah;Judaism served later as key basis for both Christianity and Islam

One of the most important poleis citystates of classical Greece, known for its democratic politics, commercial agriculture and skills off foreign trade

Greek philosopher, great pupil of Socrates; lived from to BCE; believed that human reason or knowledge could arrive at an understanding of what he called Forms or Ideasthe ultimate perfect reality he thought underlay nature; suggested the ideal form of government ruled by a philosopherking

Hereditary aristocrats and wealthy classes of the Roman republic who dominated Roman political and economic life, electing an assembly who selected two consuls and serving as members of the Senate, an advisory body to the consuls

Mediterranean people who developed first coined money

Written by Plato, held that the ideal state was one where either philosophers ruled as kings or kings were themselves philosophers

Sparta and Athens, Greeces two strongest citystates, cooperated to defeat a huge Persian invasion. Immediately after this period, Athens was at its cultural

Title given to Octavian after his defeat of the navy of Mark Antony in BCE; the creator of first emperor of the Roman empire

Alliance formed by several Greek poleis after the Persian war, Athens became the leader of the alliance, and other poleis contributed financial support, which went largely to the Athenian treasury

One of the most important poleis in classical Greece, located in the fertile southeastern region of the Peloponnesus; known for its oligarchic regime, austere life and commitment to military values

Greek philosopher; Platos pupil and teacher of Alexander of Macedon; believed that philosophers could rely on their senses to provide accurate information about the world and then depend on reason to sort out its mysteries; devised rigorous rules of logic as means of constructing compelling arguments

Historian refer to the age of Alexander and his successors as the Hellenistic eraan age when Greek cultural traditions expanded their influence beyond Greece itself Hellas to a much larger world

Civil war of the Greek world, fought between and BCE. Poleis were ided into two armed camps under the leadership of Athens and Sparta. Resulted in Athens unconditional surrender to Sparta, but the latter iled to achieve political unification of Greece

Aristotle foundation of Western scientific thought

Citystates of classical Greece. The term polis originally referred to a citadel or fortified site that offered refuge for local communities during times of war or other emergencies. By about BCE these sites developed into urban centers and extended their authority over surrounding regions. Poleis the plural of polis functioned as the principal centers of Greek society between and BCE

Athenian philosopher who lived from to BCE; tutor of Plato; encouraged rational reflection on moral and ethical issues; sought to reason through means of skeptical questioning of traditional ethical teachings. A jury of Athenian citizens condemned him to death for corrupting the minds of Athenian youths

Son of Philip of Macedonia who defeated the Greek citystates of Athens and Sparta, extending Macedonian Empire thru the ME, across Persia and into NW India

Developed alphabet w/ letters became predecessor of Greek and Latin alphabetsSemitic speaking people who lived between the Mediterranean and the mountains of Lebanon. By BCE they dominated trade in the Mediterranean basin. Between and BCE the Phoenicians eslished colonies in Cyprus, Sicily, Spain and North Africa

Nephew of the general Marius, and himself a reformminded general of Rome, responsible for conquest of Gaul in the s of the st century BCE; brought his army back to Rome and overthrew the republic in BCE; claimed himself a lifetime dictator in BCE but was assassinated by the wealthy elite class in BCE

Jew from Anatolia who zealously preached Christianity throughout the Roman empire; called for iniduals to observe high moral standards and to place their ith ahead of personal and mily interest; promised a glorious future existence for those who conscientiously observed the ith. He was executed by Roman authorities

Word is derived from the Greek demos the people; a direct democracy in which all citizens could participatechosen by lot, women could not participate in political activity; / of all males were not citizens because slaves or foreigners

The Persian Empire Art Architecturepersian empire

Another time period in the history of the Persian Empire noted for art and architecture is theSasanianorSassanid Era, sometimes called the Second Persian Empire. Buildings during this period featuredbarrel vaults, ceilings with a single semicircular curve they were not found in architecture from the Achaemenid Era. Carved stone reliefs continued to be prominent, and buildings also features scenes done infrescopainting directly into wet plaster or stucco on walls, ormosaics, s formed from many small pieces of ed glass or precious stone.

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Surrounded by fortified walls, Persepolis included a complex of structures built from locally plentiful limestone. Buildings included a Treasury to store the kingdoms wealth, a Throne Hall, and a building called theApadanafor great royal receptions. Seventytwo thin columns with distinctivecapitalsthe very top part of a column of double animal shapes surrounded the Apadana. It also had two large stairways leading up to it decorated with elaborate relief carvings of soldiers, dignitaries, and animals. A closer look at a remaining section of staircase reveals the distinct character of Achaemenid art.

By around and until BC, the time of theAchaemenid Erasometimes also called the First Persian Empire, Persia stretched from the shores of the Mediterranean Sea to India. It was a wealthy empire at the of its power and leaders created a palace complex to reflect that position and prestige.

Stephanie has taught studio art and art history classes to audiences of all ages. She holds a masters degree in Art History.

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In all, the Persian Empire produced art and architecture that was decorative, impressive and distinct in its combination of realism and stylization, and it remains some of the most beautiful in the art history of the Middle East.

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The stairway is punctuated by a large relief carving of a lion attacking a bull. Both animals have a definite feeling of motion and carefully rendered detail. But theyre also very decorative, as you can see in this detail of another lion and bull design on another section of the Apadana staircase. Contrasting ures of smooth and beaded lines mark the bulls suce and the lions mane and snarling mouth are patterned as well as realistic.

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In its time, thePersian Empirewas one of the largest and wealthiest in the world. Its art and architecture were realistic but alsostylized. Early Persian works of art included ceramics, ivory carvings, and elegant bronzes from Luristan. The first great period of Persian art and architecture occured during theAcheamenid Era, when the city of Persepolis was founded. Persepolis was a complex of buildings built onterracesand it included theApadana, a hall used by kings that was surrounded by distinctive columns withcapitalsof doubleanimal shapes. The Apadana also featured walls with carvedreliefsor soldiers and animals.

The Sasanian Era was also known for striking silver vessels like bowls and plates. Many featured royal hunting scenes of a king on horseback pursuing game. In this example, from the th century, the suce features s hammered or incised into the silver, which is thengilded, or covered in a very thin layer of gold.

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ThePersian Empire, centered in what is now Iran, was one of the largest and wealthiest kingdoms in the ancient world. It grew from a tribe of nomadic peoples who migrated to the region around B.C. Surrounded by mountains and influenced by a complex mix of Egyptian, Greek and Mesopotamian art, the Persians created a distinct both realistic it looks likes something found in nature and highlystylized, with decorated suces and ornamental flattened spaces.

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The focus of Persian art and architecture during the Achaemenid Era was the city ofPersepolis, founded by Darius the Great in the th century BC. Meant to serve as a government center but also a place for ceremonies and festivals, Persepolis was built interracesor layers on a leveled section of a mountainside. It was a monumental undertaking and took several rulers and almost a century to complete.

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During theSasanian or Sassanid Era, Persian architecture includedbarrel vaults, stone relief carving and walls decorated withfrescopaintings andmosaics. Silver plates with royal hunting scenes on them were also made, using methods like hammering and gilding.

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The earliest Persian art tended to be small and porle objects, things like ceramics, delicate ivory carvings, and small bronze sculptures from a mountainous area called Luristan. A good example of a Luristan bronze is this elegant horse bit. Two nciful winged goats feature curving horns and upward twisted tails. The unidentified artist was clearly concerned with more than just a utilitarian piece of hardware.

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Built of limestone, it features a series of figures inreliefa carving thats not quite fully threedimensional and still connected to a suce in a line along the staircase. Imagine how you would have felt as a visitor to this palace, surrounded by such figures and geometric, stepped stonework as you headed to the stairs.

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The Persian Empire produced elaborate palaces decorated with intricate sculptures and made beautiful objects of bronze and silver. In this lesson, explore the art and architecture of the Persian Empire.

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Did you know We have over college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over , colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn creditbyexam regardless of age or education level.The Persian Empire Art Architecturepersian empire

persian cultureIranian Community School

persian cultureIranian Community SchoolThe enrollment in private classes is available for kids and adults throughout the week.

The thirtysecond year of the Mehregan Festival will be held on Octoberth, in the form of a picnic at Frying Pan Park. Students of the school are practicing dance performances, musical theater and songs for everyone attending.

The organization is formed underSection c of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code. Any donation not tuitions is taxdeductible as a charile contributions to the extent allowed by law.

Group Farsi Conversation Classes will be held on Saturdays from to p.m. for adults, youth and kids in separate classes starting from September nd, .

The ll semester Classes starts on September,and ends on December,. Please visit the school office for registration.

She then moved the classes from her home to Pimmit Hill Center of Faix County, then to St. Luke Church in McLean and then to Emmaus United Church of Christ in Vienna and finally to our current location in Maple Avenue in Vienna. The school has greatly expanded its activities to meet the needs of its students. Now, the Iranian Community School is in the enviable position of demand exceed available space and potential expansion in its current site.

Painting classes will be held on Saturdays and Sundays with the coordination of the painting instructor. Registration is at the school office.

, the Iranian Community School started its activity in spring of . The first Persian language classes were given in her home with just two students.The enrollment quickly grew to six, then sixteen after just six months of classes.

Group dance classes for adults youth and and kids,under the supervision of Mrs. Melick, a member of the Silk Road Dance Company SRDC, start in October. Classes are held on Sundays at the Enshin Karate place near the school. Visit the school office for registration.

Persian Cultural Center Inc. / Iranian Community School was founded in . As a nonprofit, nonpolitical, educational entity we are dedicated to the language, culture, history, literature, music, and art of Iran for the young and adult residents of the greater Washington DC Metropolitan area.

Iran Facts and Culturepersian culture

Iran Facts and Culturepersian cultureVisitingA guest is considered a gift from Allah, thus showing kindness towards a guest is a way of respecting Allah….More

Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan

Persian and Persian dialects , Turkic and Turkic dialects , Kurdish , Luri , Balochi , Arabic , Turkish , other

FashionMen often wear Western s, although traditional robes and turbans or hats are also worn in parts of the North…More

FamilyIt is legal for a man to have up to four wives. However, most men have only one wife….More

Food and RecipesDuring the entire month of Ramadan, devout Muslims do not eat or drink anything from sunrise to sundown; later in…More