Ancient costumes of the Persiansancient persian society

Ancient costumes of the Persiansancient persian societyAncient Roman Costumes Ancient Roman headdresses

In many of these helmets the flaps descending on the shoulders are four in number, and probably were cut out of the legs of the animals whose hide or skin formed the body of the casque. In most of the lighter caps we only discern one single pair of flaps, which are often tucked up, and confined by a string round the crown.

The footwear of the Medes and Persians consisted either of pieces of leather or other material folded tightly round the feet and tied over the instep or of actual boots, which were just as primitively as the other of footcovering just mentioned. The Persian headdress was a irly deep cap, coming down in front to the eyebrows and at the back to the nape of the neck. It was made of stiff material, such as felt or leather, and had sideflaps which were often long enough to be tied under the chin. The dress of Persian women differed little from that worn by the men. The primitive form of it was hides wrapped round the body. At a later time the cut was the same, but the garments were now made of fine leather or felt. The only real differences between the dress of the two es were that the womens coats were wider and longer than those of the men and were closed down the front except for a slit at the breast. When the Median of dress became increasingly common among the Persians the ancient Persian female garments gradually disappeared, or were greatly modified. They were considerably lengthened and became more voluminous, and the sleeves were wider. Median s of dress were in strong contrast to the Persian s. In the latter the garments were closefitting, short, and made of strong material; in the former they were wide, long, and voluminous, and were therefore made of finer materials.

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The original Persian costume was made of tanned hides, covering not only the upper part of the body, but also the legs. At a later time about B.C. the Persians used strong but soft materials to provide suile protection in view of the climate of the country.

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In war the Asiatics never seem, like the Greeks, to have worn either breastplates or greaves, but frequently a coat or jacket, with sleeves, entirely of mail. A flap of mail frequently descended from under the helmet, to protect the neck and shoulders.

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Cyrus II of Persia. Born around BC to BC, fighting on a scythed chariot.

The dress of the Scythians, Sarmatians, and Dacians is specially interesting, because the cut and of it show many points of resemblance to the Teutonic shions of prehistoric and early times. The Scythians of about B.C. wore long trousers, smocklike shirts, and cloaks very like those worn by the Teutonic peoples. All the Scythian tribes dressed in very nearly the same way. The men wore irly wide trousers and a coat open in front and held in place by a girdle. Sometimes the coat hung down over the trousers, and sometimes it was tucked into them. The feet were shod with short topboots stened round the ankles Fig. , The headdress was either a capshaped piece of material kept on by a string that passed round the head or a pointed cap like that worn by the Phrygians.

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This cloak was stened at the right shoulder with a pin, or brooch, or even a thorn. The long coat was kilted sometimes high, at other times low. Sometimes it was slit at the sides, or it might be closed all round. The headdress was a cap almost identical with that worn by the Phrygians. In battle a helmet was worn. The trousers and footwear were similar to those in use among the Parthians and monarchical Scythians. The dress of Sarmatian women, who, well armed and mounted, followed their husbands into battleamong the Yaxamatians women formed the sole cavalry of their tribe, the men fighting on foot as archerswas almost the same as that of the men viz., a long undergarment, with a shorter one over it. Both of these were sleeveless, and were girt high or low as the wearer pleased. The short upper garment sometimes had a long slit at the breast trimmed with ribbons, with which it could be tied. The female headdress was a tall cap like that worn by the Phrygians.

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Dacian and Illyrian costume closely resembled that worn by the Sarmatians, and consisted of shoes, trousers, long coats, and oblong or semicircular cloaks. The main difference was in headdress. Whereas the Sarmatians wore Phrygian caps, the Dacians and Illyrians wore a irly tall, stiff conical cap made of some kind of felt see Fig. . Another point of difference was that the Dacians, unlike the Sarmatians, did not wear several coats one over another, and, speaking generally, Dacian dress was not so long or so loose as the other.

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The trousers were made in the same manner as those of the other Scythian tribes, but in some cases the Persian was followed Figs. , , . The Parthian coat, on the other hand, which was made of coloured, soft materials, often of fine quality, resembled the Median garment. It consisted of two pieces, front and back, shaped alike. See Fig. . These were sewn together on the shoulders and at the sides as r as the sleevehole. The sleeves were conspicuously long. The hole for the head was very wide ; round it was a broad hem for the tiestring, so that the garment could be drawn tight up to the neck or allowed to lie lower on the shoulders. In this way the top of the undergarment, which was similar, but, as said above, shorter and closerfitting, could be seen to a greater or less extent, as the wearer pleased. The upper coat either had a slit at the breast or was ided in front from the foot up to the fork; it might even be left completely open in front.

Fig. . Persian Leather Coat with Sleeves. Fig. . Persian Breeches.

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The Medes and Persians seem more generally to have worn the cidaris, or conical cap, sometimes terminating in a sharp point, at others truncated, and mostly loaded with ornament. The prevailing male headdress of the Asiatics, bordering on the Euxine and the Archipelago, appears to have been that which is generally known by the name of the Phrygian bonnet, and of which the characteristic features are its point or top bent down forward, and its long flaps descending on the shoulders. Sometimes this covering scorns to have been a more loose cap of the most soft and pliant stuff unable to support itself upright, and hanging down in large wrinkles; at others it appears to have formed a helmet of the most hard and inflexible substance of leather, or even of metalstanding quite stiff and smooth, and enriched with embossed ornaments.

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Many of the Asiatic nations were celebrated for their constant use and skilful management of horses; and are often represented as fighting on horseback against Greeks on foot.

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The dress of the Sarmatians closely resembled that of the Parthians, but there was this difference. When the Sarmatian wore two coats he put on the shorter one above the longer one, and only the longer one which often reached to the feet was fitted with long sleeves. The sleeves of the shorter one never came below the elbows, and often came no lower than the middle of the upper arm. Occasionally no upper coat was worn at all, and the Sarmatian costume then consisted of the trousers, the long coat tucked high up, and a cloak, which might be long or short, rectangular or semicircular.

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In the figures ofAmazonswe often see the beak of the helmet terminate in the bill of a griffin, and the spine or back of the casque rise in the jagged crest of that bulous animal. When thus shaped this covering may be considered as a sort of trophy, worn in consequence of the defeat, and formed out of the very spoil of some of those griffins with whom theAmazonsare represented as constantly at war.Minervaherself sometimes appears in a Phrygian helmet of this species, probably when represented as worshipped at Troy; andRomanlikewise wears it on many Latin coinsin order, no doubt, to indicate the kindred which the Romans claimed with the Trojans. This Phrygian bonnet seems to have been retained by many of the officers of the Byzantine emperors; and to have been, in its turn, again borrowed from these by several of the dignitaries of the Turkish empire; nay, to have travelled, during the intercourse of the Venetians with the Greeks, as r westward as Venice itself, where the Doge continued to wear it to the last day of his existence.

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The tailoring of mens clothes in ancient Persia was somewhat complicated by the ct that it had to be adapted to the of the hides available. Therefore not only had the body of the coat to be made in two or three pieces Fig. , but the sleeves also had to be cut separately and then attached to the coat. This coat reached from the neck to the knees. It was open down the front, and stened by a girdle. The sleeves were somewhat tight, and covered the whole arm down to the wrist. The hose or breeches of the Persians Fig. were irly wide. They reached sometimes to the knees and sometimes to the ankles, and were stened round the waist. They were thus both and convenient, and their great width at the top made up for the lack of stylish cut.

As with most other Asiatic peoples, womens wear among the Scythians was almost identical with that of the men. The only difierences were that womens clothes were longer and wider, made of finer material, and more daintily worked.

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The only differences between womens dress and that of the men were in the greater length of the former and the finer material of which it was made. The clothing of women of the upper classes was much more gaily coloured and more richly adorned Fig. . A frequent addition to the costume was a cloaklike wrap, and some women wore a veil stened to the head and lling down the back. For the rest, this longsleeved garment was closefitting at the top. See Fig. . No girdle was worn with it. The slit at the breast

Roman Costumes. Peasants, High Priest, Senator.

The cut of the garments was as primitive as the material of which they were made. The coat consisted of two pieces Fig. joined by a seam running down the back. In each piece a slit was cut for the arms, and the sleeves were sewn in separately.

The chief defensive weapon of the Asiatics was the pelta, or small shield in the form of a crescent; sometimes with, and sometimes without its curved side ided by a point into twin concavities. The peculiar offensive weapons of the inhabitants of Asia were the bipennis, or double battleaxe, the club, and the bow and arrow, generally carried in two different partitions of the same case or quiver.>

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This was the ordinary Parthian dress. That of the upper classes was made of splendid material, mostly coloured and richly adorned. Over it was also occasionally worn an oblong cape, stened at the breast with an agraffe, or clasp.

Like the cape of the high priest, the priests upper robe was made in two pieces, a front and a back. In contradistinction to the former, however, it was not sewn from top to foot, but was open at the sides. Moreover, the front and back pieces of this robe differed from those of the other both in shape and , and the garment itself had a hoodlike collar, separately sewn on Fig. , c. The front and back pieces were first sewn together at the shoulders; then the rest of the width of the back piece was turned over forward. The rest of its upper edges was sewn to the sides of the front piece. The collar was also sewn to the front piece so that the seams of this sewing met the seams connecting the front piece with the back.

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The clothing of the Dacian women must have been made of fine material. In cut the garments consisted of two broad oblong pieces, a front and a back. These were sewn together at the shoulders and down the sidecept, of course, the openings for the arms. The opening for the head was finished with a wide hem, through which a string was passed for stening. The sleeves had, as usual, only one seam, and were tighter at the wrist than at the shoulder.

This of costume was worn by Medes of all classes, and was also the ceremonial garb of the monarch and his officials. It was Cyrus who introduced this Median dress into Persia. The ancient Persian national dress was retained only by subordinate Court officials. The priests in Media and Persia, the magicians, when performing their official duties were clothed in white. The cut of their garments varied with their rank. The only item of dress which was worn by all priests was the sacred girdle. Priests were forbidden to wear any kind of ornament during their celebrations, but they had to carry a cane rod in their hands. See Fig. .

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Frankish Merovingian costume and th century.

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Widespread and numerous as the Scythians were, only one tribe among them attained any historical importance. These were the Parthians.The Parthians

In cut Dacian costume, made of fine or coarse woollen material, resembled that of the Parthians, but the coat, especially the upper part of it, was considerably tighter than in the Parthian . It had a slit at the breast, and at one side or even at both was open to halfway up the thigh. Dacian trousers were shaped like those worn by the Scythians, but were not nearly so wide, and were tied round the ankles after the Sarmatian .

Costume, Arms Headgear of Lydians, Syrians, Phrygians and Etruscans. Printed .

In the ceremonies performed in honour of the sacred fire the retinue of the priests was dressed in purple. A purple robeor at least a purple capeseems to have been the distinctive dress of the chief priest. When officially employed he wore the Median national costume and a headdress very similar to that worn by the king. The material and cut of the clothing of the rest of the priests bore greater resemblance to the Persian costume, or consisted of an undergarment and a wrap or plaid.

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The shields of the Gauls.Clans in the Roman Empire.

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I DO not, under this head, mean to notice the Chinese, the Hindoos, or other more remote eastern nations, who were hardly known by name to the Greeks, who were never represented on their monuments, and whose costume can be of little use to the historical painter. I only wish to offer a few observations, with regard to those less distant inhabitants of Asia, who, under the name of Medes, Persians, and Parthians, Amazons, Phrygians, Lycians, and Syrians, though a race totally distinct from the Greeks, had with these European neighbours some intercourse, and whose representations not unfrequently recur in their paintings and sculpture.

The Dacian cloak was almost semicircular Fig. ; the curved beg had long fringes. It was held together by a clasp on the right shoulder. The chief difference between female dress in Dacia and Sarmatia was that the Dacian had sleeves, while the Sarmatian coats had none. Dacian women followed the practice of wearing several coats; the sleeves of the overgarments were shorter than those of the under ones, and were gathered and tied just above the elbow or halfway up the upper arm. The garments were very long and very full, the over one being usually shorter than the one beneath. Both had one or two tucks, and were in this way shortened. Quite frequently the girdle was replaced by a cloak, oblong or with a rounded lower edge, worn so that the upper edge passed round the body, the comers being knotted together in front. The Dacian women had a very peculiar shion of disposing of the great width of the upper part of their clothing. They gathered a large part of the material at the back and arranged it in a knot, pinning it to keep it in place. Round the head they tied a kerchief, which fell to the nape of the neck like a hairnet.

The Dacians, though inhabitants of the European shores of the Euxine, but near neighbours to, and probably of the same origin with the Asiatic nations here mentioned, seem to have deviated little from them in their costume. They wore their shoes or soles stened with long strings, wound several times round the ankle, and their pantaloons very wide. On the Trajan column not only many of the Dacian soldiers themselves, but even many of their horses appear entirely enveloped in a coat of mail or covering of small scales, in close contact with the body and limbs. Their helmets were conical and ended in a sharp spike.

Bust of an Asiatic Female. Persian headdress. The Cidaris.

The trousers were made of two oblong pieces of material see Fig. . Each of these was folded lengthwise and sewn up the greater part of the length. These two baglike pieces were then sewn together where the seam in each had stopped, this junction seam running up in front and at the back and between the legs. The extra width at the top was distributed round the waist during the process of dressing and kept in place by the girdle. The headdress was a piece of leather or other material, which was given the necessary shape in the process of fulling.

The material used by the Scythians varied with the degree of civilization attained by the different tribes. The majority of them, being nomads wandering about on the Steppes, had nothing but the material that their flocks supplied. They were exposed throughout a large part of the year to inclement weather, and therefore their clothes were made of tanned leather, the separate pieces being sewn together with narrow strips of leather. Some tribes wore clothing shioned in the same way, but made of fur, while still others dressed themselves in material made from sheeps wool and felted.

The usual mens dress, called kandys, was much wider at the foot than higher up, and was so long that it had to be gathered in front and at the sides and held by a girdle Fig. . The sleeves came to the wrists; they were cut very wide near the wrist, but were tighter toward the armhole. The Median coat consisted of two pieces, front and back, cut practically alike, except that the cut for the neck was in the front piece. These pieces were much narrower at the top than at the foot Fig. , and were sewn together at the shoulders and down the two sides. The sleeves were quaintly shaped, and were put in at the holes left for the purpose in the sideseams. As was almost universally the case in ancient times, the sleeveseams were in line under the arm with the sideseam of the garment The crosses in Fig. indicate how the sleeve itself was sewn..

The Asiatics often wore halfboots laced before, with four long depending flaps, shaped like those of their bonnets, and, like those, probably formed out of the legs of the animals whose skins were converted into these buskins. Frequently eastern personages appear in shoes or slippers; seldom, if ever, in mere sandals, that leave the toes bare, like those worn by the Greeks.

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The Parthian, and other more inland sovereigns of Asia, are sometimes, though seldom, represented on their coins beheaded, with their long hair and bushy beards most finically dressed and ced. Often they wear a cylindrical cap, rather wider at the top than at the bottom, called mitra by theGreeks.Sometimes this cap was encircled by a diadem, and at others loaded with different emblematic ornaments. Its shape is to this day preserved in that worn by the Armenian priests.

The Median of hose or breeches, when worn at all, was probably in all respects like that of the Persians. On the other hand, the Median headdress was quite unlike that worn in Persia. It was a hood that not only covered the head, but entirely surrounded the ce, concealing even the chin. From it hung down two broad strips, one lling over the breast and one over the back. A different form of headdress was used by the upper classes. These wore round caps varying in and increasing slightly in diameter upward, the crown being either flat or raised. The crowns and edges of these caps, which were sometimes bestowed by the monarch as signs of distinction or of royal vour, were frequently covered with rich embroidery. The wearing of a blue and white cord round the cap was a privilege strictly confined to relatives of the royal mily.

An entirely different of dress Assyrians is met with when we turn to the Medes and Persians. In contrast to the costumes swathing the body worn by the peoples already mentioned, we now find hose or breeches and a blouselike shirt with sleeves.

began at the neck, but was covered with bows of broad ribbon. In order to render the upper part of the garment closefitting it was shaped at the waist, the lower part being cut considerably wider than the upper.>

Over this vest was most frequently worn a wide sleeveless tunic of a different ure and pattern, clasped on the shoulders, confined by a girdle round the waist, and when long, gathered up a second time by means of another ligature lower down; and of this tunic the skirts reached to about the middle of the thigh. To this thus r light and airy dress, aged and dignified persons still added a mantle or peplum, different from that of the Greeks in being edged round with a regular and distinct fringe, not interwoven with the body of the stuff, but purposely tacked on; and this studied enrichment, never observable in Grecian dresses, is in ct represented by Eschylus as a peculiarity characteristic of the peplum of the barbarians, or Asiatic nations.

Of the male attire of the different nations inhabiting the region now called Asia Minor, the prevailing features seem to have been a vest with long tight sleeves reaching down to the wrists, and long pantaloons descending to the ankles, nay, often hanging over the instep, and losing themselves withinside the shoes or sandals. These pantaloons clothe those masculine ladies theAmazons, whenever they are represented on some warlike expedition; though at other times, when at home and engaged in peaceful pursuits, they appear as on one of my fie tile vases in petticoats like other females. Sometimes these pantaloons were made of the skins of animals, at others of rich and fine tissues, embroidered or painted in sprigs, spots, stripes, checks, zigzags, lozenges, or other ornaments. Sometimes they fit tight; at others they hang loose, and ll in large wrinkles over the shoes. The vest, always of the same stuff and design with the pantaloons, seems like our modern waistcoats to have opened in front, and to have been closed by means of clasps or buttons placed at considerable distances from each other.

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Fig. . Upper Garment of Median and Persian Priest. a Sleeve; b back piece; c hood.

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The Parthians were a savage race of horsemen. Speaking generally, their clothing was the same as that worn by the other Scythian tribes, especially by the monarchical Scythians who were settled round the shore of the Black Sea. Like these last mentioned, the Parthians usually wore several coats one over another. When putting on these coats they pulled the upper one, which was cut wide and was long enough to reach to the knees, up under their girdle, so that the bottom edge of the coat underneath which was much shorter and closer fitting could be seen Fig. . They also wore long, irly wide trousers. Their headdress was sometimes pointed and sometimes round, or shaped like the Phrygian cap. The shoes were of leather, frequently dyed a reddish purple.

Albert Kretschmer Ancient Roman Costumes

Ancient Costumes of thePersians and other Asiatics.

When the garment was being put on, the loose flaps of the front piece were stened together underneath the back piece. Median footwear, like the Persian, consisted of laced shoes made of leather or other strong material. Those worn by wealthy people were richly embroidered, trimmed with gold, and frequently light in colour.

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Ancient Court dress Headdresses Roman

persian religionline of the Persians

persian religionline of the Persians BC Dayaukku/Deoces founds the Median dynasty

Abu lAbbas Safh, whose army is led by the Persian general Abu Muslim Khorasani, replaces the Umayyad dynasty with the Abbasid dynasty

The Ottomans conquer Tabriz, Armenia and Georgia from Iran

May The first oil well is drilled in the Middle East Iran by a British company

Jun Khomeini dies and is replaced by Khamenei as supreme leader, while Rafsanjani wins the presidency over Montazeri

terrorists backed by Libya blow up a Pan Am plane over Scotland killing people probably on behalf of Iran

the Sunni group Jundullah kills members of the security forces on a highway outside Zahedan, Iran

Jan An antiKhomeini article causes widespread antigovernment demonstrations during which dozens of people are killed by the police

The great mosque of Ishan is completed

Jun The shah Muhammad Ali crushes an insurrection with help from Russia and suspends the constitution

BC Pergamum conquers the Seleucid lands of Lydia, Phrygia, Lycaonia, Pisidia

Dec Popular protests erupt in Mashad and then spread to other cities after a leak reveals that the government spends billions of dollars on military and clerical agencies

BC Alexander invades the Persian empire from Syria to Palestine

Qassem Suleimanis alQuds funds and arms the Shiite militias in Iraq like the Mahdi Army to fight the USA

Ismail I conquers Baghdad and massacres Sunni Muslims

Iran grants Britain a monopoly on tobacco but the population rises in protest

Turkey, Iraq, Pakistan, Iran and Britain sign the Baghdad Pact that de cto asserts British influence in the Middle Eastagainst the Soviet Union

Iran opens a national bank under German management

BC King UntashNapirisha of Elam founds a new capital at Chogha Zanbil

Fath Ali dies and his grandson Muhammad, with help from Britain and Russia, becomes shah of Iran and appoints his Sufi master Hajji Mirza Aqasi as prime minister, thus rehabilitating Sufism against the opposition of the ulema

BC Artaxerxes V dies, last of the Achaemenians

BC Xerses, king of Persia, invades Greece and wins the battle of Thermopylae, but is defeated at the naval battle of Salamis because the Greeks employ the ster trireme boats

The Savids capture Baghdad from the Ottomans and begin a year war

The Iranian Tunneling Association is founded in Iran

Mahmoud Khan of Persia is murdered by his cousin Ashraf

the Ottomans capture Baghdad from the Savids

Qassem Suleimani is appointed to lead the alQuds force of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards

Feb Fereydoon Abbasi Davani is appointed to lead Irans nuclear program

BC Achaemenes founds the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia in Anshan, subject to Media

The shah bans all political parties except the Iranian Peoples Resurence Party of prime minister Hoveyda

the Ottomans capture Baghdad from the Savids, helped by a popular insurrection of the Sunnis, but the Savids survive in eastern Iran, Azerbajan and the southern Caucasus

BC Daiukku founds the new capital of the Medians/Persians at Hakmataneh/Ecbatana Hamadan

Ahmad Shah Duran, the Afghan commander of Nadirs bodyguard, proclaims himself the ruler of Afghanistan with capital in Kandahar and founds the Durrani dynasty

Mahmud Ghazni dies and the Ghaznavid empire declines

BC Batrian king Demetrios I expands Bactria to northwestern India

Ardashir, descendant of the priest Sassan, seizes the throne of Persia/Parthia, ends the Arsacid dynasty, and becomes the first Sassanid king with capital in Istakhr near Persepolis and Zoroastrianism as the official religion

Shapur I becomes king of the Sassanids and attacks Rome

Portugal conquers the port of Comorao Bandar Abbas to control trade in the Persian Gulf

the shah Reza Pahlevi of Iran introduces a series of reforms including womens suffrage called white revolution

BC Darius makes Aramaic the official language of the Persian empire

BC the Parthians under Phraates II are defeated by the Scythians

Jul Iran signs a deal limiting its nuclear program in return for the United Nations to remove economic sanctions

BC Alexander the Great conquers Persia and destroys Persepolis, ending the Achaemenid dynasty

BC Alexander the Great dies at Babylon and his empire is carved into three empires Cassander rules over Greece and Macedonia, Lysimachus rules over Thracia and Asia Minor, Ptolemy rules over Egypt, Judea, Syria, Mesopotamia and India

the Buyid shah Adud Dawla conquers Baghdad and seizes effective control of the caliphate from the Abbasids

BC Median king Cyaxares moves the capital to Ecbatana Hamadan

Karim Khan of the Zand tribe wins the civil war in Iran/Persia and eslishes the Zand dynasty

the turkicspeaking Qara Quyunlu dynasty moves its capital to Tabriz

Dec A suicide bomber of the antiIranian group Jundaliah kills four people in Iran

Roman emperor Trajan defeats the Parthian king Vologezes III and conquers Mesopotamia, including the Parthian capital Ctesiphon

Sadr alDin, Safis son, claims to be a descendant of the founder of Islam, Mohammed

the Ghaznavids of Afghanistan defeat the Samanids of Persia in Khurasan and the Qarakhanids seize Bukhara

P increases yearly on average through the mid s

Feb Two Russian hitmen kill Morteza Gholi Khan Sanioddoleh

BC the Persian kind Darius invades Scythia

Savid ruler Abbas dies and is succeeded by Abbas II that continues his construction projects

the Ghaznavid kingdom is founded in Afghanistan at Ghazni by Alptegin, a Turkic slave soldier of the Samanids

Dec Two suicide bombers of the Sunni Muslim group Jundollah kill people in southeastern Iran during a Shiite ceremony in retaliation for the execution of the groups leader

the Mongols invade Transoxania Bukhara and Samarkand and Iran/Persia

Two million people die in Iran in three years of mine

Over of Irans foreign trade is with Germany

Feb Cossack general Reza Khan seizes power in Iran with a coup and becomes war minister

Britain and Russia sign a treaty Convention of St Petersburg iding Iran, Central Asia and Afghanistan into respective spheres of influence

A train accident kills people in Iran

Mani is crucified by the Sassanids for tring to incorporate Judaism, Christianity and Zoroastrianism into one religion manicheism

BC Darius of Persia attacks Thrace and Macedonia but the fleet is destroyed by a storm before it can reach Athens

Shahpur I eslishes the library of Jondi Shahpur, one of the largest in the world

Nov An explosion kills Hassan Moqqadam, the head of Irans missile program

BC Cambyses of Persia conquers Egypt at the battle of Pelusium

Dec Marziyeh Vahid Dastjerdi, the only female minister in years of Irans Islamic republic, is removed from office after a dispute with president Ahmadinejad

BC Darius of Persia expands the Persian empire beyond the Indus River

the turkicspeaking Qara Quyunlu dynasty eslishes itself over northwestern Iran

BC Artaxerxes III Ochus becomes king of Persia

Pahlavi, the language of Persia, is reformed according to the Arabic script

the Zayids do not recognize the imam Baqir and cause a split within the shiites

BC Artaxerxes III destroys Sidon that has revolted and invades Egypt

BC the game of chess shatranj develops in Persia

Jul About two thirds of Iraqs counterterrorism missions are aimed at Iranianbacked militias

Iran is accused by the USA of trying to build a nuclear weapon and accepts to stop enriching uranium

the Sassanid king Khusro II launches a new attack against Byzantium

Feb Sunni militants kill people in Irans Baluchi region

Seven emperors are raised to the throne of Iran in four years

the Sassanids sign a peace treaty with Rome

the Arabs capture Ctesiphon, the last Sassanid is assassinated in Merv and the Sassanid empire ends

Agha Mohammad Qajar of a Turkic tribe a former slave who had been castrated defeats the Zand and creates his own kingdom with capital in Tehran

the turkicspeaking Qara Quyunlu under Jahanshah conquer Shiraz

Kublai Khan dies and the empire fragments in khanates, one of them being the Ilkhanate, descendants of Hulegu, with capital in Tabriz

Jan Muzafr dies and his proRussian son Muhammad Ali becomes the new shah of Iran

Portugal conquers the port of Hormuz to control trade in the Persian Gulf

the Sassanids capture Egypt from Byzantium

The Shaybanid dynasty seizes Transoxania

Nov Iranian nuclear scientist Majid Shahriari is killed and Fereydoon Abbasi Davani is wounded

the Mongol leader Hulegu assumes the title of Ilkhan as ruler of Persia

Ismail dies having united Iran/Persia and most of Afghanistan

Jun Hassan Rouhani is elected president of Iran but real power remains in the hands of ayatollah Ali Khameini

Sep For the first time since the president of the USA and the president of Iran speak on the phone

A railway opens connecting the Caspian Sea to the Persian Gulf

Sep Irans first nuclear plant goes into operation

Collapse of the Shaybanid dynasty in Transoxania, replaced by the Astrakhanid dynasty

AntiUSA conservative politician Mahmoud Ahmadinejad a former member of the Revolutionary Guard wins presidential elections in Iran, refuses to dismantle Irans nuclear program and calls for the destruction of Israel

Sayyid Ali Muhammad proclaims himself to be the Bab and later the Mahdi, the manifestation of the th imam and starts a new religion

Hezbollah suicide commandos organized by Iran blow up the US and French barracks killing marines and French soldiers

the Hezbollah is founded by a radical shiite group with the mission of creating an Iranian Islamic republic in Lebanon

Britain and Iran ally at the Treaty of London

Oil developing countries Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela found the OPEC

Iran opens the first public school for girls

the Persian mathematician Khwarazmi founds Algebra and invents the Arabix numerals

Nasir alDin is assassinated by a follower of Jaman alDin alAfghani and Muzafr alDin becomes the new Iranian shah

Dec One million people demonstrate in Tehran against the shah

Aug The year old Reza Shah Pahlevi ascends to the throne of Iran when his ther is deposed by British and Soviet troops for refusing to expel the many German advisors, and Iran becomes the main transit point for supplies going to the Soviet Union

Jun ISIS attacks kill people at Tehrans parliament and Khomeini mausoleum

Oct The USA foils a plot by the Iranian Islamic Revolutionary Guards to assassinate the Saudi ambassador to the USA and to bomb the embassy of Saudi Arabia in the USA

the Mamluks stop the Mongols in Syria and annex Syria

Mohammad Mossadegh becomes prime minister of Iran and nationalizes the AngloIranian Oil Company

Dec The price of oil reaches . per barrel, almost four times what it was a year earlier

BC Ptolemys general in Syria, Seleucus Nicator, declares himself satrap of Babylon

Feb The first train to connect China and Iran takes days through Kazakstan and Turkmenistan

Reza Khan appoints himself as Shah of Persia, the Qajar dynasty ends and the Pahlavi dynasty begins, with a program of economic and cultural Westernization with a secular educational system

Qasem Soleimani leads Irans efforts to help Assad of Syria against the rebels

the Persians/Sassanids conquer Dura Europus in Mesopotamia

The Saviyya master Shaykh Junayd transforms the Sufi order into a military movement and fights Christians in Georgia and Trebizond

Iranian reformist leader Saeed Hajjarian is almost killed in an assassination attempt

The Ottomans of Selim I defeat Shah Ismail I Savid army at Chaldiran Iran/Persia thereby conquering Kurdistan and Armenia

Byzantine troops destroy the fire temples of Persia in revenge for the Persian desecration of Jerusalem

Jul A revolution led by Najaf Quli Khan deposes the shah and restores the constitution

The exiled National Council of Resistance reveals that Iran is building a network of tunnels to connect secret nuclear weapon sites

BC the Kushan eslish their capital in Kabul

BC the Parni invade the satrapy of Parthia northern Iran and found the Parthian empire with capital in Ctesiphon near Seleucia and Arsaces as ruler founder of the Arsacid dynasty

BC Seleucus is murdered by the king of Thracia and is succeeded by his son Antiochus who transfers the capital to Antiochia

The Savids take Hormuz from the Portuguese with help from the British

BC the Parthians under Aranus II are defeated again by the Scythians and Mithridates II succeeds Aranus II as king of Parthia

Iranian/Persian general Nadir Shah invades India and sacks Delhi, stealing the Peacock Throne and the Kohinoor diamond

A raid on a Teheran student dormitory by Iranian police and rightwing vigilantes triggers student riots

the Sassanids capture Jerusalem from Byzantium

Ishan has mosques, colleges, caravansaries, public baths

Nadirs Persian army defeats the Ottomans and regains Armenia, Georgia and Tabriz

BC Cyrus of Persia sacks Babylon and frees the Jews

Persian king Firuz persecutes Jews, who emigrate to Arabia

Aug Show trials of opposition leaders are broadcast live on television in Iran in the biggest purge since the founding of the Islamic Republic

Sep Russia and China are the only countries to support Syrias crackdown on dissidents while even Syrias ally Iran distances itself from Assads regime

Mani, a thinker from Ecbatana, begins to preach in SeleuciaCtesiphon

Shaykh Safi alDin, of Kurdish descent, founder of the Savid dynasty, founds a Sunni Sufi order in Uzbekistan, the Saviyya

Irans ayatollahs outlaw most of the opposition candidates so that parliamentary elections are won by the conservative party

Iranian/Persian general Nadir Kuli of northeastern Iran expels the Afghans and reinstates the Savids to power

Khusro I ascends to the Sassanid throne and is influenced by Mazdakism

students demonstrate in Teheran against the Iranian regime, helped by USAbased television stations and by radio stations run by Iranian exiles

BC Darius Codomannus becomes king of Persia

Jun supporters of opposition leader Mir Hossein Moussavi protest against rigged elections in Iran won by incumbent Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

The last Savid dies and Nadir proclaims himself the new shah of Iran/Persia

Iran introduces a law code that replaces Islamic shariia

BC Zarathustra forms a new religion in Persia

Savid king Shah Abbas I creates a gunpowderbased military force with a slave army and economic revival

Zoroastran Persia and Christian Armenia sign a treaty that allows the Armenians to keep their religion

Zoroastran Persia Sassanids defeats Christian Armenia

BC Ionian cities revolt against Persian domination

the last Persian Seljuq ruler dies and Seljuq power collapses in Iran

Khusrau II is assassinated by his troops while the Romans retake Syria from the Sassanids

The Astrakhanid dynasty is replaced by the Mangit dynasty in Bukhara

BC Cyrus Achaemenian defeats Astyages, emperor of the Medes, conquers its capital Ecbatana Hamadan, and unifies Media and Elam in the Persian empire

Nadir Shah is assassinated and Iran/Persia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Afghanistan disintegrate

BC Darius founds the new capital of Persia, Persepolis

The border with Turkmenistan reopens after years

the Safrids shiite in eastern Persia become virtually independent

BC king Ashurbanipal of Assyria raids the Elamite capital Susa in Persia

Ardashir I Sassanid defeats Aranus V, last Parthian ruler, and moves the capital to Ctesiphon

the Ottoman empire conquers Mesopotamia from the Savid empire with the Peace of Amasya

Russia invades Iran from the north Baku and the Ottomans invade from the west

BC the Akkadian empire is destroyed by the Guti, who invade from the north, and the Elamites of Susa regain their independence

PanIslamic activist Jaman alDin alAfghani returns to Iran from the Ottoman land

Abu Bakr, one of Mohammeds followers and the first Muslim caliph prophets successor, quells upheavals throughout Arabia and declares war on the Roman and Persian Sassanid empires

Afghanistan gains independence from Britain

The exiled National Council of Resistance reveals that Iran is building a secret underground nuclear plant at Natanz

the Seljuks defeats the Buyids, invade Mesopotamia and install themselves in Baghdad under the suzerainty of the Abbasids

BC a treaty between Rome and the Parthians fixes the boundary between the two empires along the Euphrates river Iraq

BC Cambyses dies and civil War erupts in Persia

Iran Persia loses the Caucasus Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan to Russian Treaty of Turkmanchay

BC Darius invades mainland Greece to punish Athens but loses at the battle of Marathon

BC Seleucus defeats and kills Lysimachus and thereby conquers Asia Minor

the Sassanid intellectual Mazdak advocates the abolition of private property, the ision of wealth, nonviolence and vegetarianism

BC Cyrus Achaemenian unifies Elam, and moves the capital of the Achaemenids to Susa

Russia invades the northern provinces of Iran and forces Iran to dissolve parliament and to restore the power of the shah

BC Shalmaneser II, King of Assyria, defeats the Medes, who rule in Persia

BC Diodotos, a Macedonian ruler of the satrapy of Bactria Afghanistan, declares its independence from the Seleucids

a missile fired by a US warship downs an Iranian civilian airplane and kills all passengers aboard

Feb Reformists allied with Rouhani make huge gains in the Assembly of Experts

a first dynasty creates the Elamite kingdom non Semitic in western Persia with capital in Susa

BC the Parthians led by Orodes II defeat the Romans at Carrhae Syria

BC the Medians/Persians defeat the Scythians

Aug Oil prices ll below a barrel for first time since

BC Darius dies and Xerxes becomes king of Persia

the USA accuses Iran of helping insurgents kill USA soldiers in Iraq

Shapur II died after conquering Arabia and reaching the border with China

BC Bactria declares independence from the Seleucids

the Arabs force the Persians to abandon the Pahlavi alphabet in vor of the Arabic script

BC Artaxerxes II Mnemon becomes king of Persia and loses Egypt

BC Khshathrita/ Phraortes unites the Median tribes and expels the Assyrians from northeastern Iran

the Zoroastrian high priest Tanar eslishes the canon of the Avesta

Dec The first democratically elected parliament in Iran approves a parliamentary constitution and appoints Morteza Gholi Khan Sanioddoleh as leader of the parliament

Britain and the Soviet Union withdraw from Iran

Iraq Saddam Hussein attacks Iran Khomeini

Abdolmalek Rigi founds the Sunni terrorist group Jundullah to fight against the Iranian regime

BC Tiridates leads the Parthians to independence from the Seleucids

the Samanids defeat the Safrids and expand their empire to Persia but adopt the Persian language

Apr Sunni rebeles of Jaishul Adl kill Iranian border guards

Shah Ismail I a year old boy from the northwest who claims to be the hidden imam, a descendant of the seventh imam, a reincarnation of Khird, the mahdi and the spirit of Jesus and even assimilates legends from Buddhism and Zoroastrianism founds the Savid dynasty and declares Twelveer Shiism as the state religion persecuting Sunni Muslims

Savid ruler Abbas II orders the forced conversion of Jews

BC the Babylonians, led by king Nabopolassar, and their allies the Medes, led by Cyaxares, destroy the Assyrian capital of Nineveh as well as Nimrud and split the Assyrian empire Mesopotamia to Babylon and Elam to Media while Egypt recovers control of Palestine and Syria

Iran hires the US economist Arthur Millspaugh to run its finances

BC the Seleucids under Antiochus III conquer Palestine and Phoenicia from the Ptolemaics

the Sassanid king Shapur II defeats the Roman emperor Julian and recapture Nisibis and Armenia

BC Parthians under Priapatius expand into Seleucid eastern Iran

The English East India Company acquires rights to trade freely in Iran

Mohammad Khatami, a reformist, is elected president of Iran, but the ayatollahs still control the army

Ali Khamenei is appointed president of Iran

BC Darius becomes king of Persia and ides Persia into satrapies

BC the Kushan Yuezhi, nomadic tribes expelled from China by the Hsiungnu Huns, overthrow the kingdom of Bactria and pushes the Scythians south to Iran and India

Jan Iranian nuclear scientist Mosta AhmadiRoshan is assassinated

Ottoman Empire and Iran sign a peace treaty defining their borders

BC Mithraism an offshoot of Zoroastrianism that worships Ahura Mazda as the sole and creator god is born in Bactria

the turkicspeaking Timur overthrow the Chaghatai khanate and conquers Iran Persia, the old Ilkhanate, eslishing his capital in Samarkand

the Khwarazmis conquer Persia from the Seljuqs

The Turkicspeaking Aq Quyunlu dynasty takes control of most of Persia from the Timurids

the Sarid ruler Yaqub Leys revolts against the Arabs and unifies most of Persia

Mar Irans Suleimani helps arrange a ceasefire between the Iraqi Army and the Mahdi Army

BC Bactrian king Menander invades northwestern India

BC Artaxerxes I Longimanus becomes king of Persia

The price of oil is per barrel, double the price of

Sep A bomb kills ten people in northwest Iran

Babists try to assassinate the shah and are massacred throughout Iran, they move to Ottoman Palestine and found the Bahai ith

Mar Sunni militants kill people in Irans Baluchi region

the turkicspeaking Timur overthrow the Chaghatai khanate and conquers Iran Persia, the old Ilkhanate, eslishing his capital in Samarkand

The Astrakhanid dynasty collapses and Uzebkistan and Turkmenistan are absorbed into Iran/Persia

a raid on a Teheran student dormitory by Iranian police and rightwing vigilantes triggers student riots

Sep The USA, Britain and France discover that Iran has built a secret uraniumenrichment cility near Qum

Husain Ali Montazeri and Hashimi Rafsanjani compete for power in Irans parliament

BC Ionian cities helped by Athens sack Sardis but are beaten at the Battle of Ephesus

the USAs and the British secret services engineer a coup to remove Irans prime minister Mohammad Mossadegh, and the USA replaces Britain as the main player in the Middle East

the Buyids shiite descend from the Caspian Sea, and invade Abbasid Persia

Russia and Iran go to war over the Caucasus

Agha Mohammad Qajar conquers all of Iran/Persia

Mohammed I ibn Malikshah dies and the Seliuq empire breaks up into independent kingdoms in Iran, Iraq, Syria and Anatolia

The Middle East produces only of the worlds oil

There are more university students from Iran than any other nationality in the USA

Oct people including several members of Irans Revolutionary Guards are killed in a suicide bombing in the Baluchi region by Sunni group Jundallah

Jan Iranian physicist Massoud Ali Mohammadi is assassinated

the Sassanid queen Purandokht signs a peace treaty with Byzantium

Sibovayh, a Persian scholar, codifies the Arabic grammar and writes the first Arabic dictionary

BC the Parthians of Mithradates I conquer Media and Elam from the Seleucids, while Edessa becomes decto independent

the Sassanid king Khusro I dies and is succeeded by Khusro II

Britain organizes the AngloIranian Oil Company to exploit the Iranian oil fields

Apr Iran signs a nuclear deal with the world powers

Iran grants Baron DeReuter railway monopoly, mining rights and control of customs revenues

Dec The Iranian rial drops to its lowest level ever against the dollar due to increased sanctions by the USA

Muhammad dies and the years old prince Nasir alDin becomes shah of Iran with help from Britain

Britain invades Afghanistan which becomes, de cto, a British colony

Abu Said dies and the Ilkhanate disintegrates

the war between Iraq and Iran that has cost about one million lives ends with no winner

Iran begins an economic recovery during which P per capite will increase fives times in years

Apr Iranian intelligence agents murder four Iranian Kurds in Germany

Mohammed I ibn Malikshah dies and the Seliuq empire breaks up into independent kingdoms in Iran, Iraq, Syria and Anatolia Rum

Adud Dawla of the Buyid dynasty adopts the Persian imperial title shah

BC defeated by Ptolemy III Euergetes, the Seleucid empire loses eastern lands to the Parthians and to Pergamum

the Sassanid king Khusro I builds the Palace of the Great Arch in Ctsiphon

The first public school for girls opens in Iran

Iraq uses chemical weapons against Iranian troops

BC Seleucus grants Punjab and Afghanistan to Chandragupta Maurya

the Seljuqs move their capital to Baghdad

BC the Scythians invade the Median empire northeast Persia

Feb Iran becomes a theocratic republic led by the ayatollah Khomeini with a strong antiUSA posture Islamic Revolution and strict Islamic laws girls can legally be forced into marriage at the age of

the Mongols destroy the Abbasid caliphate of Baghdad killing , people including the last Abbasid caliph, conquer Persia, Mesopotamia and Syria and eslishing an Ilkhanate with capital in Baghdad

An AngloIranian treaty turns Iran into a decto protectorate of Britain

Iran cancels DeReuters concessions under pressure from the religious eslishment

Iran and the Ottomans sign the treaty of Erzurum

Irans population is about million and Tehran has about , people

Two women are elected to Irans parliament

Sebaktigin, king of the Ghaznavid kingdom, invades northern India and Central Asia

the Sassanid king Khusrau II is defeated by Roman emperor Heraclius at Niniveh

BC The Greeks defeat the Persians at the battle of Plataea and expel the Persians from Europe

Mahmoud Khan, an Afghan chieftain, revolts against the Savids, invades Iran/Persia and captures Ishan, thus ending the Savid dynasty

Britain defeats Iran at Herat in Afghanistan

Iranian cleric Hoseyn Ali Montazeri criticizes Ali Khameinis dictatorship and is placed under house arrest

The Ottomans and the Savids sign the Treaty of Zuhab that returns Mesopotamia to the Ottomans and gives the Caucasus to Iran

the Seljuks, led by Toghrul Beg, defeat the Ghaznavids near Merv and invade Persia, moving their capital to Ishan

Agha Mohammad Qajar is murdered by his servants and succeeded by his nephew Fath Ali, who suppresses the Sufi order in Iran

BC Alexander defeats the Persian army at the Dardanelles

Agha Mohammad Qajar crowns himself shah, thus terminating the Zand dynasty and founding the Qajar dynasty, and unifies Iran/Persia, Uzebkistan and Turkmenistan with rsi as the official language and Shiite Islam as the official religion

Shaykh Murtada/Morteza Ansari is recognized as the spiritual leader of all Shiites, the first time that religious leadership is concentrated in one person

BC the Seleucids under Antiochus III are defeated by the Romans in Thracia

Oct Sunni rebels kill Iranian guards on the border with Pakistan and Iran retaliates by hanging prisoners

the Persian astronomer Nasir AlDin Tusi builds the Maraghah observatory

AD Kanishka, king of the Kushan, enlarges the kingdom from Bactria into Uzbekistan, Kashmir, Punjab, moves the capital to Peshawar and promotes Buddhism instead of Zoroastrianism

May Iran blames the Sunni group Jundullah for a suicide attack on a mosque of Zahedan that kills people

Russia conquers Samarkand and Bukhara in Uzbekistan

Savid king Shah Abbas I moves the capital to Ishan

BC Bactrian king Euthydemus defeats Seleucid king Antiochus III at Magnesia

The Savids conquer Comorao Bandar Abbas from Portugal

BC Seleucus Nicator eslishes a kingdom ranging from Syria in the west to India in the east and founds the Seleucid dynasty with capital in Seleucia Iraq

BC the Parthians under Aranus II conquer Babylonia from the Seleucids, who now control only Syria

Ghazan, the Ilkhan, converts to Shia Islam, and the Ilkhanate becomes a sultanate

Iran loses the war against Russia and recognizes Russian rule over Georgia and Azerbajan Treaty of Gulistan

persian cultureShahnameh of Ferdowsi

Firuza Abdullaeva and Charles Melville, The Persian Book of Kings Ibrahim Sultans Shahnama Bodleian Library,

Popular culture, poetry, music and visual arts and the roles they play in our society.

Senior Fellow in Persian at SOAS, University of London

Professor of Persian History at Pembroke College at the University of Cambridge

Curator of Middle Eastern Coins at the British Museum

Download the best of Radio s Free Thinking programme.

Barbara Brend and Charles Melville eds., Epic of the Persian Kings The Art of Ferdowsis Shahnameh I.B.Tauris,

Melvyn Bragg explores the pivotal role of Englands north in shaping modern Britain.

Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis, Persian Myths British Museum Press,

Melvyn covered a huge range of subjects in . How much do you remember?

See all broadcasts of Shahnameh of Ferdowsi

Dick Davis, Epic and Sedition The Case of Ferdowsis Shahnameh University of Arkansas Press,

Elizabeth Laird, Shahnameh The Persian Book of Kings Frances Lincoln,

Barbara Brend, Muhammad Jukis Shahnamah of Firdausi Philip Wilson,

Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis and Sarah Stewart eds, The Idea of Iran I.B.Tauris, four volumes published between

Melvyn Bragg and his guests discuss the epic poem the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, the Book of Kings, which has been at the heart of Persian culture for the past thousand years. The poem recounts a legendaryhistory of Iran from the dawn of time to the ll of the Persian Empire in the th century and serves, in a sense, as a creation myth for the Persian nation.

Ferdowsi author, Reuben Levy trans., The Epic of the Kings London, and reprints

Ferdowsi author, Dick Davis trans., Shahnameh The Persian Book of Kings Penguin Classics,

Every episode of In Our Time is available to download.

B. W. Robinson, The Persian Book of Kings An Epitome of the Shahnama of Firdawsi Routledge,

If youre new to In Our Time, this is a good place to start.

A. Shapur Shahbazi, Ferdowsi A Critical Biography Harvard University Press,

The Shahnameh took Ferdowsi thirty years to write and, consisting of over , verses, is said to be the longest poem ever written by a single author. Laced with tragedy, Ferdowsis epic chronicles battles, romances, mily rifts and Mans interior struggle with himself. Although the stories may not always be true they have a profound resonance with Iranians even today, and the poem has been referred to as both the encyclopaedia of Iranian culture and the identity card of the Persian people.

The relipersian religiongion that developed during the Persian Empire was

The relipersian religiongion that developed during the Persian Empire wasHow did the era of progressivism deal with the Web Dubois and Booker T. Washington debate?

Was the Market Revolution more revolutionary than the American Revolution? *EXPLAIN WHY

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Verified answers contain reliable, trustworthy information vouched for by a handpicked team of experts. Brainly has millions of high quality answers, all of them carefully moderated by our most trusted community members, but verified answers are the finest of the finest.

The religion that developed during the Persian Empire was Zoroastrianism.

What modernday invention do you think has had the most impact on society and why?

You are always so stingy with the sugar. Please, I like sweet coffee. Can I have more? Which of the following best explains what the word stingy implies? HELP PLZ

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Use the below to answer the following question Case study The Very Big Apple With over eight million people, New York City is the most heavily populated city in the U.S. Between and…

It is a monotheistic religion and the God is referred to, among others, as Ahura Mazda. Today there are still around . million Zoroastrians mostly in India and Iran.

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With over eight million people, New York City is the most heavily populated city in the U.S. Between and , the population of New York increased from about , to over three million…

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Achaemenid Persian persian empireEmpire?

Achaemenid Persian persian empireEmpire?Last edited Mon Jul , am Total Number of Edits

Literally, the rise Id say is covered inChariot Lords, where they turn up near the end. Its about as grand strategic as you can get.

I was soloing a game ofSuccessorslast night and I thought that map was close to what I needed. It also gave me some ideas of the relative complexity Im aiming for. Once I get some time Ill try to develop that further.

I have a bad feeling that even if there is nothing like what Im looking for out there, this thread may still end up costing me money

As for the Persians being the bad guys, consider this they authorized the rebuilding of the Jewish Temple because they recognized, in the Jews, the only other monotheistic people in that part of the world.

This game covers only the persian civil war of , but the map, counters and system can be easily adapted to what you are looking for with a few home rules.

. The Persians are represented as a minor power, but some tinkering might just work.

This game covers only the persian civil war of , but the map, counters and system can be easily adapted to what you are looking for with a few home rules.

I was wondering if there was a game starting with Cyrus the Great and covering the formation of the Empire. Or even formation and decline at the hands of the Greeks, but from the perspective of the Persians.

Last edited Mon Jul , pm Total Number of Edits

This sounds like a great theme for a game. The rise of the Persian Empire was a remarkable achievement in the ancient world.

Yeah, I have this one. Its strategic enoughbut its not really what Im seeking.

To be clear here, Im speaking of a strategic level game. No inidual battles or campaigns. Does something like this exist?

Potentially you can also use something likeBarbarian, Kingdom Empire

As for the Persians being the bad guys, consider this they authorized the rebuilding of the Jewish Temple because they recognized, in the Jews, the only other monotheistic people in that part of the world.

what Im looking for and I dont speak Greek, but very interesting nonetheless. I didnt know about this one at all. Thanks.

I am called Huginn…, or is it Muninn…, I forget…

In the West they are generally portrayed as The Bad Guys, mostly Im guessing because of the GraecoPersian Wars of the thth centuries BC. But their Empire was a remarkable achievement and it didnt create itself. I find myself wondering if this subject has been covered in any existing game.

Through the Ages A New Story of Civilization

This game depicts the Persian wars in Greece between and BC at three months per turn. Each turn one has a randomlydetermined number of action points which one spends by activating inidual generals/admirals and their commands. The game also features a number of strategem chits, allowing special actions Treason, Reconnaissance, Storms at Sea, etc. There are three scenarios, covering the Ionian revolt against Persia and each of the two Persian Wars.

Does anyone know of any game and I guess Id better add English language game covering the rise of the Achaemenid Persian Empire?

I am called Huginn…, or is it Muninn…, I forget…

I was soloing a game ofSuccessorslast night and I thought that map was close to what I needed. It also gave me some ideas of the relative complexity Im aiming for. Once I get some time Ill try to develop that further.

Robinson Crusoe Adventures on the Cursed Island

I remember that game. I used to own it, and liked it quite a bit. The only problem I see is that the map is a little more Mediterranean centered than I would like, though it would still work for the Persians westward expansion.

This may be a little generic for you, but King of Kings and presumably Imperator has a Cyrus the Great scenario for the expansion of Persia.

It really is inexplicable that this Super Power its creation from the Medes through Cyrus rise and beyond hasnt been simulated. In ct, you could consider adapting theBritanniaMaharaja, et. al. system especially if you continue through to the Mohammedan conquest and beyond.

considered them the Bad Guys, in ct I would characterize them the Good guys to many of their subject peoples such as the Jews. Ive just found them to be considered that way in many of the Western accounts of their wars with the Greeks. But still they built the largest preRoman empire in antiquity.

I am called Huginn…, or is it Muninn…, I forget…

I am called Huginn…, or is it Muninn…, I forget…

This sounds like a great theme for a game. The rise of the Persian Empire was a remarkable achievement in the ancient world.

I have a bad feeling that even if there is nothing like what Im looking for out there, this thread may still end up costing me money

Last edited Mon Jul , pm Total Number of Edits

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And I thank all of you very much for your responses. Now Ive got some research to do and probably some money to spend….

I am called Huginn…, or is it Muninn…, I forget…

Yeah, thats what Im thinking youre probably going to have to adapt an existing game like this, Assyrian Wars, orAlexandrosCommand mag. had several expansions for this, includingXenophon or use them for inspiration to create one whole cloth Id buy it!

Potentially you can also use something likeBarbarian, Kingdom Empire

Theres the Vae Victis magazine gameRather Dead Than Persian. Im not sure whether this is strategic enough for you.

persian cultureIs Iran an Arab Country?

persian cultureIs Iran an Arab Country?To those definitions, Lewis adds a more recent usage that excises religion by regarding the Arabicspeaking peoples as a nation or group of sister nations in the modern sense, linked by a common territory, language, and culture. Arab Christianswho werent designated that way until the thcenturywere particularly attracted to that version of Arab nationalism because it would make them full members of the state.

What territory do Arabs inhabit? The Arab conquests of the seventh century spread the Arabic language and civilization from North Africa to central Asia. Under the Islamic caliphate, Arabic became the language of scripture, government, law, literature, and science. Majority Arabicspeaking countries remain in southwest Asia, Egypt, and North Africa. TheArab Leagueincludes Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, the Palestine Liberation Organization, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.

The answer to the second question is easy No. But explaining why Iran isnt an Arab country requires the answer to the first.

Note the absent country Iran. Alone among the Middle Eastern peoples conquered by the Arabs, the Iranians did not lose their language or their identity. Ethnic Persians make up percent of modern Iran, and modern Persian is the official language. Persian also has official status in Afghanistan, where Dari, or Afghan Persian, is one of two official languages. In addition, the majority of Iranians are Shiite Muslims while most Arabs are Sunni Muslims. So Iran ils most of the fourpart test of language, ancestry, religion, and culture.

s characterization of Iran as an Arab neighbor in adossieron the Saudi royal mily. Who are the Arabs, and is Iran an Arab country?

The easiest definition is to say that an Arab is simply someone who speaks Arabic. But thats not satisctory. Not all Arabicspeaking peoples identify themselves as Arabs.

Clickherefor a glossary of Islam, orherefor the origins ofistan.

Lewis cites two broader definitions as more accurate. A group of Arab leaders once stated that whoever lives in our country, speaks our language, is brought up in our culture and takes pride in our glory is one of us. The scholar Sir Hamilton Gibb put it this way All those are Arabs for whom the central ct of history is the mission of Muhammad and the memory of the Arab Empire and who in addition cherish the Arab tongue and its cultural heritage as their common possession.

Who are the Arabs? Its not a cile question. Historian Bernard Lewis devotes s to the subject in his introduction toThe Arabs in History. Part of the problem, Lewis warns, is that the termArabmay be used in several different senses at one and the same time, and that a standard general definition of its content has rarely been possible.

Explainer thanksThe Arabs in HistoryandThe Multiple Identities of the Middle Eastby Bernard Lewis, andEncarta Online.

Both of those definitions encompass more than just language. The first definition adds a geographic element and a cultural element, and Gibb adds religion to the mix. Encarta Online gives airly succinct definitionthat includes all four elements the ancient and presentday inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula and often applied to the peoples closely allied to them in ancestry, language, religion, and culture. Part of the problem with understanding the meaning of Arab, Lewis writes in another book, is that secular Westerners have great difficulty understanding a culture in which not citizenship, not nationality, not descent, but religion, or more precisely, membership of a religious community, is the ultimate determinant of identity.

ancient persian societyPapers

Comparing and Contrasting Ancient Greek Drinking Vessels and the Present Day Starbucks Cup

Exploring Homers Iliad as a Source of Information about the Ancient City of Troy

Dionysus the ancient Greek god of wine, merry , and madness. Dionysus is included in some lists of the twelve Olympians of Ancient Greek religion. Dionysus was the last god to be accepted into Mt. Olympus. He was the also youngest Olympian, and the only one to have a mortal mother. The Dionysia was a large festival held in ancient Athens in honor of Dionysus. During the festival, numerous theatrical performances of dramatic tragedies and comedies were preformed while people would eat and drink, especially wine…. [tags God of wine, merry , maddness]

Theater was an important part of Ancient Greek Civilization. History of Greek theatre began with religious festivals which aim to honor Dionysus, a god. During the festivals some citizens sing songs and perform improvisation plays and other participants of festivals judges this performances to decide which one of them was the best. These plays form the foundation of the Greek Theatre. Because of the competition between performers to create best performances, plays gained an aesthetic perspective and became a form of art…. [tags history of Greek theater]

In todays society, women hold a position equal to that of a man. However, this has not always been the case especially in the Ancient Greek society. In the society there were many rules and regulations for all, but in particular the women had it the hardest. Women were seen as insignificant characters in the Ancient Greek society. While the men.women attained the most difficult job of all, bearing children. These women in the society had very little freedom, actually no freedom at all. Can you imagine being locked inside a house all day with the windows locked…. [tags modern, Ancient Greek, equality, womens studies]

Pygmalion is one of Bernard Shaws most mous and beloved plays, which he published in London in . This play was written during the Edwardian era which was characterised by major political, social and economical changes. Politically, the reign of king Edward VII witnessed a relative involvement of social segments such as labourers and women in political life. Socioeconomically, the British society was marked by a strict and a clearcut social class system in the early twentieth century. During this period and up to First World War, it was believed that of the British population owned approximately of the countrys wealth…. [tags class differences, ancient greek]

Ancient Greek Mythology Hellas The Oppressive

Ancient Hieroglyphics The Decipherment, Dissemination, and Development Relating to Todays Modern English Language

… According to Plato, a distinction should be in place between student and instructor. Furthermore, the instructor should have total knowledge about whatever subject the student is seeking to learn about. Socrates boldly declared that all people innately have the capability to discover all that can be known. He went on to contend that the value of a thought, concept, and indeed a person itself is measured by its ability to make the thinker more content and satisfied. This defied the popular notion that these were judged by standards set by legislators and the even the gods…. [tags education, cultural, behaviors]

Apoxyomenos and the Role of Athletics in Ancient Greek Culture

Ancient Greek and Mesopotamian Religions A Comparison

Greek tragedies often teach readers several valuable lessons, one of which is the catastrophe caused by acting on emotions. Both Oedipus and Antigone experience this as a result of their rash behavior. Even Creon ends up miserable in Antigone due to the change in his behavior. By acting on their emotions, these characters all experience tragic downlls, while others, such as Ismene and Creon during Oedipus Rex, remain safe due to their prudence and indications of wisdom. Due to the actions she took based on her emotions, Antigone suffered a r worse te than Ismene…. [tags catastrophe, emotions, prophecy]

Athens and Sparta are among the most iconic names within the ancient Greek world. Each city state created a vast among of history and eslished large names for themselves within the history books. However, if both city states managed to get their names known in this way, how alike were their actions. How is the militaristic Sparta different from the democratic Athens. Each civilization had a wide variety of differences within the way they managed themselves. These differences included the governmental structure of the city state itself, the social ladder imbedded within the society, and the daily life of the citizens…. [tags athens, sparta, ancient greek]

The position of women in Classical Athens has often been described as subordinate in comparison to men. Women were categorized in very particular ways Athenian women were wives, while those who migrated to Athens from other citystates were slaves or prostitutes. Countless literature, from tragedy to comedy and political s, reinforces the notion that citizen women were meant to serve their husbands within the confines of the oikos and produce legitimate sons in order to further the glory of men while nonAthenian women served their purpose towards men through ual pleasure…. [tags Women and Religion Greece]

Aside from the intertwinements, or lack thereof, of religion into peoples lifes, how else did the people of these three cultures live their everyday lives, and what parallels can be made. One of the biggest common themes in the social structures and lifes of these three cultures are the rights and privileges they gave women. In ancient Greece, women had basically no political rights and were nearly always under the control of men. Their main duty was to have kids, and preferably male ones at that…. [tags Religion, Life, Inventions, Innovations]

Lets take you back, way back, back into time, back to Early Greece. There are a lot of things that set early Greece apart from all the other chapters in the book. First off, I am a musically inclined girl who has grown up around music all of my life. I guess that is one reason why I have chosen the field that I am studying right now. I feel that it was always interesting to learn about Ancient Greece and its culture in music and poems. Not only does it set music apart, but it also tells an interesting tale with its art, literature, architecture, important people, and historical significance or relevance…. [tags music, philosophy, humanities]

Ancient Greek Women In ancient Greek society women lived hard lives on account of mens patriarch built communities. Women were treated as property. Until about a girls teens she was owned by her ther or lived with her mily. Once the girl got married she was possessed by her husband along with all her belongings. An ancient Greece teenage girl would marry about a yearold man that she probably never met before. Many men perceived women as being not being human but creatures that were created to produce children, please men, and to fulfill their household duties…. [tags essays research s]

Ancient Greek mythology has made its way into public conscience and knowledge. So much so that any person on the street would be able to name at least one deity from their pantheon. From this public knowledge, much is known about the religions including its stories and mythologies. But less is known about a persons role in Ancient Greek religion and even less about a woman roles in their religion. What roles the Ancient Greek people did play can be gathered from the Greek stories and myths. But more specifically what roles did Ancient Greek women play in their religion…. [tags mythology, deity, priesthoods]

Three Key Points of Ancient Greek, Roman, and the Renaissance Life

Art of ancient Greece My report is on ancient Greek art mainly sculptures and vase art I will also be writing about a day in the life of a Greek artist. Artists in ancient Greece varied from designing coins, mosaics, gem engravings, architecture, pottery and sculptures. Im also going to talk about what tools the sculptors used and the various methods used to make pottery and vases. The second part of my report will be about a day in the life of a Greek artist for example how they were treated were they considered middle class, upper class or were they looked down upon also what were their daily tasks, how did they would start their day and end it…. [tags essays research s]

Todays modern English language did not develop overnight, rather over hundreds and thousands of centuries. The main that we develop our language from is Greek, however we also have to think about where the Greeks derived their language from. After a very long chain reaction going through multiple cultures, the language that we use to this day arose and can be traced back to its original roots. The language of the early ancient Egyptians consisted of picturelike drawings that could be found on the walls of caves, pottery, and religious documents…. [tags greek, roots, ancient, cultures]

Of the many conflicting philosophies, morality, when referring to ones sense of ethics, is the greatest and most intriguing disparity between the Ancient Greek ideologies of heroism and the contemporary views of today. By the standards of the Greeks, Achilles was a Hero. He was the embodiment of the inidual, a man of unwavering principle, not only unwilling but incapable of allowing his values to become compromised. His credo and the actions determined though it, while certainly irreconcilable with present ethical standards, are strongly rooted in his own idea of justice…. [tags Achilles and Hector, Plato, Socrates]

DBQ ANCIENT GREEK CONTRIBUTIONS The Ancient Greek contribution ranged by the BC, however its influence on the Western Literate Society lasts to this day. As the Greeks expanded their empire, they spread their ideas to other countries, while also borrowing from other cultures. During this period of time, the Greeks made many significant and longlasting contribution to our modern culture in Philosophy, Art, Democracy, Drama, Math, and Science. These givings of important ideas, inventions, and structures have had an extraordinary influence on the surrounding environment, society, and in the future…. [tags European History]

From the early stages of civilization men created a form of government to help bring order to society. One of the greatest philosophers Thomas Hobbes believed that men left in their natural state is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short; however, for men to obtain peace they must renounce their freedom to a form of government to gain freedom. Hobbes, The government has shaped many civilizations, and brought many changes to each new civilization. Throughout history one can observe many forms of government, some government systems brought peace and prosperity to the states while others brought destruction, war, and mine which can be seen in Ancient Greek and Rome… [tags history, ancient greek]

Thesis statement While the ancient Greek historians made great strides in perfecting the writing of history, the Roman historians and the Greek historian writing Roman history continued perfecting the art of writing good history. The two Greeks Herodotus and Thucydides started the practice of reporting truth and personal knowledge of historical events above prose and poetry visvis Homer, as well as removing much of the theologicalcentric content. The Roman historians that came after improved on this practice, particularly Tacitus, who used the better developed recordkeeping of the times to write more concise, accurate histories with personal knowledge of the movers and shakers of t… [tags greece, writing roman history, polybius]

Ancient Greece was a thriving Greek civilization that lasted from the archaic period to the end of the antiquity era. The ancient Greek culture was a technologically advanced civilization who laid the foundation for many of our modern day cultural traditions. One tradition that is still very prominent in our culture is theatre. The ancient Greeks have been considered the pioneers of theatre, and are known to have introduced the first actor, the tragedy genre, and most impressively theatre architecture…. [tags acoustics, skene]

Penelope is a great example of how Greek women should act in early society. Penelope was loyal to her husband, she was clever, and she was a good mother to her son Telemachos. Penelope honored her husband and didnt go against him even though he was gone for over years. She also had to ce over suitors while Odysseus was gone. Penelope showed her cleverness when she told the town she would remarry when she finished weaving the rug. Every night Penelope would undo the work she weaved so she could buy time for her husband…. [tags Odessy, homer, characters, women, ancient greek, h]

Ancient Greece, the birthplace of theatre, continues to greatly influence theatre today. Drama is a form of poetry, because dialogue was spoken or sung in verses. Many Greek plays are still relevant today. Some plays survived on their merits, while others were preserved from academic interest or by accident Peter Arnott. The Great Dionysia was an important yearly religious celebration and festival, honoring Dionysus, the Greek god of wine and fertility. The Great Dionysia is where theatre first began…. [tags genres, great dionysia, ]

The Role of the Chorus in Ancient Greek Plays

Gender Roles in Ancient Greek Society Throughout history, the roles of women and men have always differed to some degree. In ancient Greece, the traditional roles were clearcut and defined. Women stayed home to care for children and do housework while men left to work. This system of society was not too r off the hunter gatherer concept where women cared for the house and the men hunted. Intriguingly enough, despite the customary submissive role, women had a more multiceted role and in society as juxtaposed with the rather role men played…. [tags Greek Gender Roles]

Hippocrates and Galen Comparative study between the best Greek Medical doctors of ancient Times. Introduction As The Greek empire declined, Rome inherited its medical traditions and knowledge. During the st and nd centuries A.D health standards dropped considerably and outbreaks occurred of life threatening diseases. Galen of Pergamon, a follower of Hippocrates, gathered much of the medical knowledge of the time and added to it his studies of anatomy and physiology mostly of animals. In Spite of his errors in describing certain anatomical and physiology phenomena, his writing created the foundation for medicine over years later in Europe…. [tags essays research s]

Homer was the ancient Greek poet said to have lived between around the th and th century B.C. Some believe that he was born on the island of Chios and others say he was in Ionia. He was said to be a court singer and a storyteller. He is mous for the writings of the epic poems the Iliad and the Odyssey. While there is controversy weather or not Homer alone wrote these pieces or many other people wrote it over a period of time and even if Homer was an actual person. Homer also wrote Homeric Hymns which are short poems celebrating various Gods…. [tags Ancient Greece, Greek History, Trojan war]

… Tesserae were sometimes placed in specific angles to reflect light. More detailed aspects of mosaics were often constructed on a piece of cloth. As years passed more earthy toned mosaics were replaced with s of blues and later gold. Word Count Part C Evaluation of Sources Source Marcus Rautman. Byzantine Luxury Arts. In World History Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABCCLIO, . Accessed April , . The origin of the document Byzantine Luxury Arts written by Marcus Rautman is a secondary source article addressing the techniques and materials of different Byzantine crafts and art forms that were highly valued by the Byzantine p… [tags artistic s, use of icons and symbols]

Speech on The Underworld in Greek Mythology The Underworld, better known as Hades after the god who ruled it, was a dark and dreary place where the shades, or souls, of those who died lived. In the next few minutes, I will tell you about how one came to die, the topography of the Underworld, and the beings whom dwelled there. Your whole life was planned and plotted by the Fates. The Fates were the three goddesses who controlled the destiny of everyone from the time they were born to the time they died…. [tags Ancient Greece Greek History]

The Prevalence of Literacy in Ancient Greek and Roman Societies

The Role of the Chorus in Ancient Greek Plays *Works Cited Not Included In ancient Greek plays, the role of the chorus was to sing lyrical passages. The lyrical passages were set up by the writer and the chorus would then perform dance movements to compliment those lyrics. In todays day and age, it is the cast members in many musicals who depict the role as the chorus. However, in some cases, the chorus also helps assist the modern reader in interpreting ancient terminology used during that period…. [tags Papers]

Womens Involvement in Ancient Greek Religion

The choruss perspective of justice works differently in Euripides Medea and Aeschylus The Libation Bearers. In both The Libation Bearers and Medea, the driving force of vengeance links the chorus to each of the plays protagonists. For both plays, the choruses begin with a strong support of their heroes with a belief that the course of action that those characters are pursuing for the sake of avenging the wrongs done to them or their milies is just and right. The chorus of Medea, however, moves away from that original conviction in the moral justification of revenge…. [tags Libation Bearers, Medea and Aeschylus]

Approaching the subject of ancient Greek religion one encounters a paradox simultaneously we know too little and too much. The Greeks have neither a word for religion in their vocabulary, nor possessed sacred books or religious s, they neither formed clergy, nor appointed a person to exercise absolute religious authority. However, in Greek society the ubiquity and presence of their gods consumed the commoners, influenced the politicians, and inspired the artists. No aspect of Greek life can be approached without considering their religion…. [tags religion, belief, greek]

Your search returned over essays forancient greek

Most countries in the world have arches in their creation myths, even countries as distant from each other as Japan and Greece. Japans religion, Shinto, has stories about sibling marriages and casting deformed children away. Greek myths have similar plots in their stories. There are reasons why these two completely different cultures have similar stories. The next three paragraphs explain why there are arches and differences in creation myths of Japan and Greece. Both Shinto myths and Greek myths have siblings marrying each other…. [tags Creation Myths]

After Life Beyond The Horizon The Ancient Greek Belief of the Afterlife

Ancient Egyptian Greek and Roman Stele Just as we use tombstones to mark graves and commemorate our dead, so too did ancient civilizations. One way to do so in the ancient world was through the use of steles. A stele is a stone slab, usually decorated in relief and inscribed, that honored the death of a person. Three of the ancient cultures that had implemented the use of the stele were the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. In comparing an example from each civilization, it is possible to see the evolution of the stele from one period to another and the different influences each civilization had on a single element…. [tags essays s]

The Role of Love in Ancient Greek Medicine Among the many Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Greece, one that was worshipped on multiple levels and to a great extent was Love. This ine force held a powerful role in many aspects of the Greeks lives, including the understanding of their own bodies. As the societys culture moved away from reliance on the Divine, and towards a more scientific method of understanding itself, the notion of love remained ingrained in the set assumptions; its dual ability to cure and destroy underscored the practices of medicine and the understandings of human anatomy…. [tags Greece Medical Love Essays]

Greece The Democratic Eslishment vs The Militaristic Society

The Peloponnesian War The Great War of the Ancient Greek World

Comparison of Ancient Greek Pottery Throughout the history of Ancient Greece thousands of great works of art were produced. Works were created in many different media, ranging from life statues to larger than life architectural structures. One of art that can sometimes be overlooked, though, is pottery. There are many examples of great Greek pottery, but the two that will be used as a sample are Artemis Slaying Actaeon and Woman and Maid. By considering the s of these works, and comparing them directly we are able get a taste not only of the artistic s of the time, but also a taste of ancient Greek culture…. [tags essays s]

Ancient Greek Historians Herodotus and Thucydides

Comparing Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman Architecture

Ancient Greek Medicine While Greek Medicine particularly from the th century B.C onwards, increasingly used scientific method to develop cures, there still however remained people that considered medicine to be a religion. The ancient Greeks Hellenic made important discoveries about the human body and health, so by the sixth century BC, medicinal practices focused largely on a more clinical approach involving observation. Their discoveries were made by firstly studying the human anatomy using dissection and vivisection, finding ways to heal using things such as plants and herbs, then finally practising surgery on the human body using different instruments…. [tags Greek History]

Ancient Greece and Greek Scholars and their Influence in the USA Today

Evidence of Etruscan culture has been identified to exist around B.C.E. Scholars have this information based on the art pieces found. This articles range from sculpture, paintings, pottery, metalwork, and jewelry. Etruscans are considered to be the blueprint of what the Roman culture was and a lot of influence from Greek colonies that lived in Italy was also found. This essay will attempt to describe the and the techniques used by Etruscans. As the dictionary defines is a distinctive, formal, or characteristic manner of expression in words, music, painting, etc , n.d….. [tags Etruscan Style, earring]

Aristophanes Voices Concerns for Ancient Greek Culture in His Plays

Democracy Outweighs The Other Forms of Goverment

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The Necessity of Roles in Ancient Athens The dramatic growth of ancient Athens from a powerful polis to an Aegean Empire was a result of the hierarchy in ancient Athens. The roles of the people played a big part in this advancement. Therefore, the roles in ancient Athens were very structured and rigid. The male citizens worked very hard politically, while they left the women with the task of bearing children, and the slaves with the backbreaking physical work that allowed the city to function. In ancient Athens, men held all the important positions in society and ran the government…. [tags Ancient Greece, Greek History]

… Dikaiopolis doesnt understand why they want to fight so much. He takes every opportunity to advocate their stupidity by comically refuting their actions toward him and his mily. Dikaiopolis says, Comedy too can sometimes discern what is right. I shall not please, but I shall say what is true, The Acharnians, lines . He means that he is going to say whatever he feels is right, and in the end, no matter what actions the Acharnians take, there isnt anything they can do to stop him from laughing at what they do…. [tags comedy, peace, athens]

Greek Mythology should be taught in High School

The Battle of Leuctra, one of the most influential and significant battles in ancient Greek history, occurred during the summer of BC. This battle not only influenced Greece for many years to come but also eastern European history in the fourth century BC. Prior to Leuctra, the citystate of Sparta was the most dominant and powerful force in the Peloponnese and the rest of Greece. However, as a result of the conflict, the course of history would change forever. Spartas defeat at the Battle of Leuctra ended its power in Greece because as a result of the loss, its military, political, and social dominance was shattered forever and was never recovered for the rest of its history leading to… [tags ancient Greek history]

The Human Body in Ancient Greek Sculptures The primary focus of ancient Greek sculptures was that of the human body. Almost all Greek sculptures are of nude subjects. As the first society to focus on nude subjects, Greek sculptors attempted to depict man in what they believed was the of the gods and so would come to celebrate the body by striving for verisimilitude or true likeness realism and naturalism!.Riffert Not only did the Greeks celebrate the human form in their art but also in everyday life…. [tags Art History Essays]

Greece is a small country on the southern end of Europes Balkan Peninsula. While a relatively small area of geography, the country was a focal point of power and influence in the ancient world as well as today. Greek architects were relentless in their quest for perfection, used meticulous attention to detail and created many innovations. The methods used were tremendously sophisticated and complex even in comparison to modern times. Techniques used by ancient Greek architects are still used today and are copied around the world…. [tags world history, european history]

We all look for our beginnings. Whether we look for them in our personal life or in our professional life, we still look for them. As I was looking around the theatre recently, I was looking at and wondering where the idea of the theatre came from. Rather, who built it and why it is built the way it is. Who made the first one. Where do the roots of the theatre lay. All very good questions that I hope will be answered. In the beginning of time, man did not understand the complex workings of the universe…. [tags essays research s fc]

Greek mythology is a compilation of the Ancient Greek stories that are based on their culture and practices. Its also about their gods and heroes, as well as their origins. Each of the Greek myths has a moral message through the stories that are written. It teaches us the good deeds and wrongdoing of the gods and goddesses, and how we, as a human being, should act. Thus, Greek mythology should be taught to high school students. There is something uniquely different about each of the Greek myth, each have their own message that it wants to deliver…. [tags Persuasive Essay Ancient Greek Greece]

Ancient Greek and Roman Dietary Guidelines The Greeks and Romans didnt have very many options on what they ate, they basically ate anything they could find or make. They had many different techniques of cooking and certain classes of people ate differently than others. The Greeks also had many religious ceremonies that were associated with meals and eating habits. The wealthy Greeks ate a variety of meals and related them very much to religion. Fresh, dried, and salted fish were a delicacy if they were mackerel, sturgeon, tuna, sea bream, or mullet; but one of the vorites was eels from Lake Kopais in Boeotia…. [tags Papers]

Ancient Greek Drama A Comparison of the Euripides and Sophocles

Roman Architecture Roman architecture implemented many characteristics of Ancient Greek architecture. The Romans showed the influence of their engineering skills and secular monuments, while Greek architecture exhibited the influence of their gods and ideas of physical perfection. The use of arches, the dome and concrete permitted the ancient Romans to attain extraordinary achievements in the construction of imposing structures for public use. While showing the magnificence of the Greeks and their practical application, as well as their creativity, the Romans eslished architectural features that remain to this day…. [tags columns, post, lintel, monuments]

Ancient Greek Religion Mycenaean to Classical Period Ancient Greece has been a religion centered culture since the earliest period of habitation in Greece, the PreMycenaean/Mycenaean period. Also through to the Dark Ages to the Classical period. It is a religiously centered civilization, and did have significant changes in the how it was incorporated into peoples daily lives. Religion is important to know about the Ancient Greeks because through it we are able to understand how they lived their lives…. [tags greece, classical period, priestess]

… It is interesting to note that dithyrambs were alternatively called goatsong, and the word tragedy is derived from the Greek tragos, meaning goat, and odi, meaning song Nardo . In his work Poetics, the Greek philosopher Aristotle notes, [Tragedy] certainly began in improvisations originating with the authors of the dithyramb And its advance after that was little by little, improving on whatever they had before them at each stage Nardo . Over the years, the dithyramb grew in elaborateness, eventually reenacting myths from older works of epic poetry, such as Homers Odyssey or Iliad Nardo …. [tags Sophocles, Golden Age, Oedipus]

In ancient Greece there was a belief that an equal, but justified, negative event offset every positive event. Likewise, a positive experience justified every negative escapade. This Greek belief is apparent in the epic Iliad by Homer in the scenes that Hephaistos shions onto Achilleus new battle shield. The scenes painted on Achilleus new shield reflect to the reader the belief that the Greeks had in balance in their lives. In one such spectacle Hephaistos depicts a Greek wedding tradition…. [tags Ancient Greece Essays]

Ancient Greek Theater Architecture Many aspects of ancient Greek theaters have long been studied and debated. Much of the information about these theaters is based on speculation due to the ct that so little of them still exist today. This lack of remnants especially applies to the architecture of the early Greek Theaters. However, through archeological finds and years of studying the people, the plays, and the architecture of the time, we are able to make many conclusions about these early structures…. [tags Architecture History]

Historians have long considered Ancient Greece to be one of the most influential societies on modern day life. Ancient Greece has inspired the modern world in five main areas theatre, government, philosophy, art, and architecture. Theatre flourished in Greece, particularly in Athens, between c. BC and c. BC. During its beginnings theatrical performances were part of Dionysia, a festival held in honour of the god Dionysus. The plot of the plays was always inspired by Greek mythology, a theme that is still common today…. [tags Ancient Greece]

The two ancient civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome were the best of the best during their time periods. Ancient Greece began around B.C. by the inhabitants known as the Mycenaeans, followed by the Minoans. The Minoans built the foundation of Greece. The Roman Empire was founded around B.C. by the two twins, Romulus and Remus. Romulus ended up killing Remus and built the city of Rome on one of seven rolling hills. Architecture was very important to both civilizations and they were always trying to out due the other…. [tags Architecture]

A Comparison of the Christian and Ancient Greek Cultures

Ancient Greek Philosophical Views are Still Relevant Toda As a strategy to defeat the invading Persians during the Persian War, the poleis Greek citystates of Greece united in order to form one large military force. Following the war, Greece decided to adhere to this idea of unity and form the Delian League in order to protect Greece from Persian domination. However, many of the poleis begin to resent the ct that the polis of Athens held a roll at the top of the League. This tension leads to a war between Athens and Sparta, known as the Peloponnesian War…. [tags Papers]

The Greek culture served as a frame for many aspects of Western life, one of which is government. They are the first culture that we know of that created a true democracy. They were incredible thinkers, people nowadays could never have thought of such reason. Without their thoughts and ideas our modern day government would not be as powerful as it is currently. The Greeks were highly sophisticated thinkers and had a marvelous sense of imagination. They were the first culture to figure out a democratic form of government…. [tags Greece, government, democracy,]

The Role of the Chorus in Ancient Greek Tragedies

The social stratifications for both societies had a few similarities, but overall were very different. The social stratification in both societies was mostly determined by birth, similar to the caste system, with almost no social mobility. The ancient greeks had social classes; the Athens, which were the highest class, they had all political power and were the wealthiest, to be part of this social class you would need to be born in Athens, because the rights for the class could only be inherited hereditarily…. [tags athens, roman republic, social stratification]

The ancient Greek and Roman civilisations boasted numerous writers, poets and historians, who left us an impressive intellectual heritage. But were common people literate as well in classical times, or were they relying on a body of professional scribes. After a brief explanation about the role of orality and the meaning of literacy in ancient times, the essay will examine some possible evidences of literacy from the epigraphic habit in classical antiquity as epistolary exchanges Vindolanda Tablets, inscriptions on artects ostraka, ladys shoe from Vindolanda, the Nestor Cup, epitaphs and dedications on monuments the Pantheon in Rome, the tomb of Eurysaces the Bakker and severa… [tags orality, inscriptions, elite]

Ancient Greek and Roman Art Styles in the Renaissance

Greek Architecture is one of the earliest s of architecture. It is also one of the leading forerunners for some of the modern architecture we see today. Although there are very few of the Greeks masterpieces left to view to this day they are still masterpieces to behold. Architectural s are used for decoration and structure. Greek Architecture isnt just for the glamour and decoration, but also for the creative method and s in which a building was built Greek architecture originated in Crete formed by the Dorians hence the Doric columns…. [tags early architectural s]

Book Review of Ancient Greek Religion by Jon D. Mikalson

… She oiled my limbs, kneading and knuckling, and slapping; looked at my wound, muttering charms and said it would heal clean I stretched out under the old womans hand, feeling my sinews loosened and my blood run sweetly. nothing was left but the smart of the wine in my graze, and a heavy drowsiness In the morning the old woman came again with her warm oils. I slept like a log; my leg wound was drying cleanly, and not much deeper than a scrape. The muscles I had thought were torn were only strained; all I need now was to move about…. [tags alternative medicine, health]

Ancient Greek Culture Inventors of Demoncrary

Jealousy in Ancient Greek Society Jealousy is one of the harsher and more passionate ces of Love in Ancient Greek Society. Societal norms for love and relationships dictate that older men are the lovers who pursue women and young boys. Love infects the pursuer and causes him to have intense feelings about the object of his desire, but not always vice versa. Consequently jealousy is seen more as the active partners disease and is commonly associated as a male emotion. Women also experience jealousy but they are not supposed to be the pursuers in relationships according to societal norms…. [tags Greek History Studies]

… The denouement takes place when Oedipus is begging Creon to put him into exile. Character is also important in the Poetics. An important aspect of it, tragic flaw, also known as hamartia, is the ult in a character that eventually leads to their downll. Oedipus, upon learning of Apollos creed to kill the murderer of the last king to restore Thebes to its former glory, becomes overly determined and vows to exile the murderer once he is found, including a mily member if that is who the murderer turns out to be…. [tags Sophocles, ancient Greek literature]

Ancient Greece When thinking about Greece, people generally think of Athens and its beauty, but not many think of the things that ancient Greece has given the world. Without all of the struggles and wars that Greece went through, they would not have been able to bring the world some of the greatest scholars known. Although the government, knowledge, and education the U.S. and the world has received from Greece is not visible, it is still very important today. The U.S. government has many things in common with the ancient governments of Athens and Sparta…. [tags Government, Education, Philosophy]

Ancient Greek The Birthplace of Western Civilization

Greek Pride in the Inidual The culture of ancient Greece reflects the importance of the inidual in society in many different ways. The Greeks used art, philosophy, and even their system of government to convey their beliefs in the importance of one single man in a society. Greek artists showed value for the inidual. All people were portrayed in Greek art, from the sagging old woman to the ideal athlete. Although early Greek art focused on the human ideal, their later art shows that the Greeks appreciated all forms, and found the human body in general to be a beautiful thing…. [tags Ancient Greece Greek History]

Arches of Shinto and Ancient Greek Religion

… Italy was the epicenter of the Renaissance and many mous Renaissance artisans and inventors came from Italy. Sandro Botticelli was a painter and started painting at the age of when he became the apprentice to Florentine painter Fra Filippo Lippi. Sandros legacy was in his paintings that featured figures from Greek and Roman mythology such as Venus goddess of love. A Renaissance Idol is a person with dexterity in their profession, is very unique and creative and is always thinking of new zany ideas…. [tags Sandro Boticelli, greek, middle ages]

Penelope An Example of a Honorable Greek Woman in the Oddessy

… Until Xerxes, the next Persian king, would come in to power. Xerxes came into power at around B.C., and intended to continue Persias revenge against the Greek people. This time they were determined to use overwhelming force so in B.C., Xerxes gathered together an army of several hundred thousand inntry and a navy of six hundred ships. He threatened Greece, and demanded that all citystates surrender to him. Many citystates surrendered, except for a relatively few that included Athens and Sparta…. [tags mediterranean sea, greek, sparta]

What do all cultures have in common. All cultures have some believe that after death the soul goes to an underworld. In the underworld there is a variety of different gods and creatures, beliefs of what happens to the soul, the settings in them, and the heros journey to and from the underworld. In ancient Greece they believed that a god by the name of Hades ruled everything beneath the earth. They also saw the importance in the length of ones life. This is why they had the three semigoddesses who are responsible for the spinning of life and death is called the Moirae…. [tags cultures, afterlife, Dante, Ancient Greece,]

There are a handful of differences and similarities from an Ancient Greek drinking vessel and a Starbucks cup some people may not take into consideration. While comparing and contrasting a Starbucks coffee cup and Ancient Greek drinking vessels I will take careful notation into the differences and similarities of their form, function and decoration of the articts. I will go into careful detail of what the ancient Greeks used to create their drinking vessels. Also, I will elaborate the functions that the Ancient Greeks first had in mind and what uses they had during the different time periods…. [tags Compare/Contrast]

Even though democracy has been in existence since the ancient Greek, it rose to prominence in the twentieth century with a large number of countries shifting to democracy. This transition to democracy has sprung up a debate over its appropriateness as a system of government, with some supporting it as an ideal system while others coining it as the vilest form of government. Although it is argued that democracy and economic growth do not go hand in hand, nevertheless, democracy is not the vilest form of government because it provides better governance, protects inidual liberty and rests sovereignty with the people…. [tags ancient greek, transition to democracy]

Its All Greek to Me! Examining Ancient Greek Theater Architecture

How the Greek revered their gods In ancient times, the Greeks had absolute and undeniable respect for their gods. They demonstrated their admiration by putting in place many rituals and celebrations to reverence the gods that they loved and feared in order to ensure harmony with them. In particular, the focus will be on the religious beliefs of the Greeks, including prayer and sacrifice, as well as on festivals and the arts, such as the ancient Olympic games and theatre. These aspects of their culture made a significant contribution to their quality of life…. [tags Ancient Greece Greek History]

Ancient Greek Tragedies Passion vs. Prudence

Ancient Greek Astronomy Since the first Egyptian rmers discovered the annual reappearance of Sirius just before dawn a few days before the yearly rising of the Nile, ancient civilizations around the Mediterranean have sought to explain the movements of the heavens as a sort of calendar to help guide them conduct earthly activities. Counting phases of the moon or observing the annual variations of day length could, after many years collection of observations, serve as vital indicators for planting and harvesting times, safe or stormy season for sailing, or time to bring the flocks from winter to summer pastures…. [tags Papers]

Like the Egyptians, artwork and architecture of the Greek Classical Age followed a canon of more freely accepted idealistic forms. While proportion and order are guiding principles of the classical Fiero , other features also played a significant role. These three major ideas, used in combination, are the Humanistic approach, the Realistic approach, and the Idealistic approach. The Relief with a Dancing Maenad, is a classical of art that represents a time when dance was prized for its moral value, as well as for its ability to give pleasure and induce good health Fiero …. [tags Culture]

Similarities and Differences Between Ancient Greek and Byzantine Art

A Comparison of the Christian and Ancient Greek Cultures Most Christians or those religions that follow the basic principles of the Bible believe in the stories told in the Bible. In ct, these stories are usually regarded not only as mere stories, but also as actual historical accounts of important people, events, and concepts of the Christian ith. However, stories of Greek and Roman mythology are typically regarded as nothing more than fictional, ntasy stories. The idea that Ancient Greeks viewed these stories to be their religion seems insane to many people of Biblical Faith…. [tags Papers]

Equality Between Men and Women in Modern Society vs. Ancient Greek Society

While he was born thousands of years ago, Euclid has made a mark in mathematics that has stood the test of time and continues to shape modern sciences. He discovered classic geometry and wrote many book and s on mathematics that proved useful to the great thinkers of the time. Having drafted a lot of his finding in his book The Elements, he has made a framework for mathematicians and is, even centuries later, revered as valued information. His years of studying have made him a loved and respected inidual…. [tags ancient Greek mathematicians]

Apoxyomenos and the Role of Athletics in Ancient Greek Culture According to Marilyn Stokstad, the visual arts are among the most sophisticated forms of human communication, at once shaping and being shaped by their social con v. As this quote implies, artistic pieces invariably are a reflection of the culture in which they were created. Thus, art is a potent means of deciphering the values and belief systems of ancient societies. Apoxyomenos BCE, or The Scraper, created by the sculptor Lysippos, is an enduring testament to the importance ascribed to athletics by the citizens of ancient Greece…. [tags Essays Papers]

I. Mom called it an experiment. But this kind of experiment didnt entail foaming beakers or a bolt of lightning to force life through the seams of Frankensteins monster. No, this one called for daisyprint jumpers from the local bargain bin. Number two pencils. Spiralring notebooks. The objective of these trips to the nearest supplies store soon came to light. All three of the hydras heads were going to kindergarten. We existed as both a medical miracle and an ancient Greek myth. Imagine our parents surprise after Moms midMarch delivery a firsttime mother and successful lawyer, ready to roll into parenthood with a series of parenting classes under their belts…. [tags conjoined, kindergarten, first day]

Ancient Greek Olympics Reporting todays Olympic games is like a technological masterpiece. The athletes compete in many events, their times and scores are tallied and sent worldwide by satellites and hightech computers within seconds. Each event is carefully watched and recorded with a sense of history. There was no such sense of history or records when the first Games began in Ancient Greece. The first recorded champion in Greece was a sprinter, Coroebus, he was a cook in a near by Greek city called, Elis…. [tags essays research s]

The Byzantine Empire existed for nearly , years, and its one of the greatest empires of all time. It started in A.D. and lasted until A.D. It had many rulers. It was known as the eastern Roman Empire. It spread roman culture to Eastern Europe in the Middle East, and was the most power government in the Middle Ages. It was known to be one of the greatest empires of all time. Byzantine derives from Byzantium, an ancient Greek colony founded by a man named Byzas. The site of the Byzantine Empire was ideally located to serve as a transit and trade point between Europe and Asia Minor…. [tags ancient greek, constantinople, christianity]

… Both the US and the Athenian government had the Legislative limb, the Executive extension, and the legal limb. The Legislative extension passes the laws, the Executive limb completes the laws, and the legal extensions had trials with paid members of the jury. In the US, a large portion of the just speculations that the administration utilization are either indistinguishable or fundamentally the same to the Ancient Athenians hypotheses. In reasoning old Greek kept s on the part of reason and request…. [tags philosophy, fine art, socrates]

The ancient Greek philosopher Plato once said, let parents bequeath to their children not riches, but the spirit of reverence Think Exist. This importance, for parents to pass down the notion of reverence, can be seen in Book One of Homers The Odyssey. Set at the ll of Troy, the reader is introduced to, if but briefly, Odysseus, his son Telemachos and the suitors who are after Penelopes hand in marriage. Throughout the first book, Homer makes it quite apparent that Telemachos and Odysseus are beyond doubt reverential characters and, therefore, set the foundation for being true heroes…. [tags Greek, Odyssey, Gods]

… While Maxites laboured outside, Adara the future wife of Maxites gave him water and brought him food as he worked, showing the role of each gender of this time; the man does the labour and the woman serves the man, and makes sure he is as comforle as possible. The roles of Maxites and Adara were one hundred percent noninterchangeable. This is a violation of Human Rights, humans have the right to do what they want, as long as it is not illegal, and if this right is stripped from them, they are being afflicted and unjustly forced into doing things that they might not even want to do…. [tags poseidon, Hera, Athena, Arphrodite, Zeus]

The Role of Greek Gods and Goddesses in Ancient Times

A Brief History of Ancient Greek Architecture

The Greek theatre tradition of the time was rooted in the spirituality of its people, developed with the help and instruction from the politicians of the day and analysed by the philosophical contingent of the age. To discover how the theatre tradition of the fifth century was influenced by the spiritual, philosophical and political mindset of its time, one must first look at how the theatre of this age was first developed. The Greek theatre tradition was born at a theatre built beneath the Acropolis in Athens, at an annual religious festival at which a large chorus of men would dance, play instruments and sing odes to the God of the festival, Dionysus…. [tags European Literature]

Ancient Greek Philosophical Views are Still Relevant Today

What Is Effective Social Behavior for an Ancient Greek?

Ancient Religions By MLB As civilization has progressed through the ages, many religions have arisen and taken hold around the world, two if the most interesting, being the religious beliefs of the ancient Mesopotamian and the Greeks. These two religions were practiced in different areas and at different times and, therefore, show that religion has played a critical role in every society and civilization. No matter how it is organized or what of god is worshiped, a society would be nothing without some kind of deity to organize it…. [tags essays research s fc]

The Role of Greek Gods and Goddesses in Ancient Times With all of the interesting aspects of the Odyssey, I am only going to touch on one of them. The gods and goddesses in the Odyssey of all of the deities mentioned I am only going to focus on a few. The first and most powerful of these is Zeus. Then we have Hermes, the messenger god. Last but not least of these would be Athena, the goddess of warriors. Zeus, Ruler of the gods. Zeus, ther of gods and of men. His power was vast as the sky, mighty as the roll of thunder …. [tags Greek Mythology]ancient persian societyPapers

Parthianpersian religion

Parthianpersian religionAhrimanas the Principle of Evil. We need not doubt that, in word, the Parthians from first to last admitted this antagonism, and professed a belief in Ormazd as the supreme god, and a dread of Ahriman and his ministers. But practically, their religious aspirations rested, not on these dim abstractions, but on beings whose existence they could better realize, and whom they could feel to be less remote from themselves. The actual devotion of the Parthians was offered to the Sun and Moon, to deities who were supposed to preside over the royal house, and to ancestral idols which each mily possessed, and conveyed with it from place to place with every change of habitation.

The Sun was saluted at his rising, was worshipped in temples, under the name ofMithra, with sacrifices and offerings; had statues erected in his honor, and was usually associated with the lesser luminary. The deities of the royal house were probably eithergenii, ministers of Ormazd, to whom was committed the special protection of the monarchs and their milies, like thebagaha vithiyaof the Persians, or else the ancestors of the reigning monarch, to whom a qualified inity seems to have been assigned in the later times of the empire. The Parthians kings usually swore by these deities on solemn occasions; and other members of the royal mily made use of the same oath. The main worship, however, of the great mass of the people, even when they were of the royal stock, was concentrated upon ancestral s, which had a place sacred to them in each house, and received the constant adoration of the household.

Very little is known as to the religion of the Parthians. The Parthian Empire, being culturally and politically erse, had a variety of religious systems and beliefs, the most widespread being those dedicated to Greek and Iranian religions .It seems probable that during the Persian period they submitted to the Zoroastrian system, which was generally maintained by the Achaemenian kings, acquiescing, like the great bulk of the conquered nations, in the religious views of their conquerors; but as this was not their own religion, we may conclude that they were at no time very zealous followers of the Bactrian prophet, and that as age succeeded age they became continually more lukewarm in their feelings, and more lax in their religious practice. The essence of Zoroastrian belief was dualism, recognition ofAhura Mazdaor Ormazd as the great Principle of Good, and of Angra Mainyu or

While thus lax and changeful in their own religious practice, the Parthians were, naturally, tolerant of a variety of creeds among their subjects. Fire altars were maintained, and Zoroastrian zeal was allowed to nourish in the dependent kingdom of Persia. In the Greek cities the Olympian gods were permitted to receive the veneration of thousands, while in Babylon, Nearda, and Nisibis the Jews enjoyed the free exercise of their comparatively pure and elevated religion. No restrictions seem to have been placed on proselytism, and Judaism certainly boasted many converts from the heathen in Adiabene, Charax Spasini, and elsewhere. Christianity also penetrated the Parthian provinces to a considerable extent, and in one Parthian country, at any rate, seems to have become the state religion. The kings of Osrhoene are thought to have been Christians from the time of the Antonines, if not from that of our Lord; and a nourishing church was certainly eslished at Edessa before the end of the second century.

Greek gods such as Zeus, Pallas , Nike and Apollo appear on Parthian coins , it is hard to say how much common such worship was outside of the Greek cities. No Zoroastern motifs appear on coins, suggesting a weaking of its influence during this period.

In the early times of the empire the Magi were held in high repute, and most of the peculiar tenets and rites of the Magian religion were professed and followed by the Parthians. Elemental worship was practised. Fire was, no doubt, held sacred, and there was an especial reverence for rivers. Dead bodies were not burned, but were exposed to be devoured by birds and beasts of prey, after which the dry bones were collected and placed in tombs. The Magi formed a large portion of the great national council, which elected and, if need were, deposed the kings. But in course of time much laxity was introduced. The Arsacid monarchs of Armenia allowed the Sacred Fire of Ormazd, which ought to have been kept continually burning, to go out; and we can scarcely suppose but that the Parthian Arsacidae shared their negligence. Respect for the element of fire so entirely passed away, that we hear of the later Parthians burning their dead. The Magi fell into disrepute, and, if not expelled from their place in the council, at any rate found themselves despised and deprived of influence. The later Parthian religion can have been little more than a worship of the Sun and Moon, and of the teraphim, or sacred s, which were the most precious possession of each household.

The Parthian Jews who were witnesses of the miraculous events which signalized the day of Pentecost may have, in some cases, taken with them the new religion to the land where they had their residence; or the Apostle, St. Thomas, may as Eusebius declares have carried the Gospel into the regions beyond the Euphrates, and have planted the Christian Church in the countries out of which the Jewish Church sprang. Besides the nourishing community of Edessa, which was predominantly, if not wholly, Christian from the middle of the second century, many converts were, we are told, to be found among the inhabitants of Persia, Media, Parthia Proper, and even Bactria. The infusion, however, was not sufficient to leaven to any serious extent the corrupt mass of heathenism into which it was projected; and we cannot say that the general character of the Parthian empire, or of the manners and customs of its subjects, was importantly affected by the new religion, though it had an extraordinary influence over iniduals.

Statue of a Parthian Hatra king holding a votive figure. Hatra was an ancient city in the Ninawa Governorate and alJazira region of Iraq, near Mosul. It was known as alHadr, a name which appears once in ancient inscriptions, and it was in the ancient Persian province of Khvarvaran. It was built circa rdnd centuries BCE and flourished st to nd centuries CE under the Parthians. Many articts and much of the remains of the city destroyed by ISIS .

Spice persian cultureTour

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After the  tour we invite you for an opulenttraditionalSwahili lunchserved in a local house, here you will get a really taste of the spices in the food. The tour includes visiting theKidichi Persian Bathsbuilt in by the first Sultan of Zanzibar as a gift for his Persian wife.

You will be decorated with palmleaf accessories such as ties, rings, bracelets and glasses. At the Spice rms you will have an opportunity to taste some of theexotic fruits of Zanzibar.

The halfday trip includes transport, guide, entrance fees and a superb lunch.

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Ourguided walking tour passes through villages and spice plantations, a walk through the rms as spice rms workers climbs trees, seek out specific plants and cuts off various barks, letting you see, feel and taste everything.

Thehistory of Zanzibarwould be incomplete without the cloves, nutmeg, cinnamon, pepper and many other spices which areessential ingredientin a Zanzibaris everyday life, it is the islands connection tospices and herbs. Zanzibar and Spice is a romantic entanglement that dates back to the th century. Apart from being an important commodity on the trade routes. They can be seen in the plantations just outside Zanzibar town, this is also  a ntastic opportunity to see the countryside and rural areas ofZanzibarand also connect with local people.

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We have developed a special Spice Tour with indepth information not only about spices, but also organically grown herbs and detailed descriptions about their uses in traditional dishes, as cures for ailments and even for dyeing traditional ceremonial outfits for weddings and festivals. We have knowledgeable guides trained by a mous herbalist in Zanzibar Mr. Madawa.

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Differences Between Kurds and Persiapersian religionns

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A Kurdish intellectual who was murdered os by chauvinist Turkish agents whose Musa Anter was telling in his book Hatıralarım Memoirs that Persian in Kurdish Parsek which means Beggar. In ancient times they were like nomad Gypsy coming to our cities/villages and begging from us for something to eat.

Im Kurd, and I love my Persian brothers. Kurds are not Turk or Arab. We are not Persian either, but We have same race, culture and similar language with Persians. Iran is nothing without kurds, and believe me, I have never seen any Persian to behave superior to me. Some guys here do not live in Iran, and under some not all wrong news they say some wrong things about Iran. Kurds dont like the government just like most Persians, so please please lets separate Iranian people from its government. Iran is consisted of several ethnic groups that are are all Iranian except arabs, Persians, Azeries, Kurds, Lurs, Baluchs etc. If there is a bad thing In Iran it is for all Iranians, not only kurds. To make a long story short, I love my country Iran, and In ct, I have to say that I also consider the Kurds of Turkey, Iraq and Syria Iranian because their race is Iranian, their language is Iranian, and also their culture, like Nowruz, is Iranian.

Kurds and persians live in Iranian peninsula for thousands of years. Kurds are Medes ethnic group who used to live alongside persians and both are Iranian. Achemenid empire constituted both of these ethnic groups. In ct, Cyrus the greats ther was a Persian and her mother was MedesKurd.

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and relegions in the past before years ago before muslims invade persian empire .god damn arabs

Hey , kurds in origin are yezdanism but persian are shia muslims , kurds are not aryan iran or turan turkish , and persian never had a state while kurds had vassals and small kingdoms

Mr Mard* Man Pyaw پـيــاو Mann

What happened to all of the? They ALL tortured then savagely killed.


read about Mahabad Republic And Qazi Muhammad in s and Kurdish revolt in s and

Persians stole what religion and culture from Kurds? You out of your mind or what. Persians stole from a small minority compare to them and based their religion and culture on theirs eh lol interesting. Thats why Kurds are like Jews. Still without a land

Bab, bav* Padar* Father Bab باب Vater

Ba Bad Wind Ba با Blähung, Wind

For example Door is in Kurdish Derî and Derî is comes from the word outside der ve in Kurdish we can translate it as thing that separates outside

Dot, Keç Dokhtar*DaugtherKiç کچ Tochter

Both ethnic groups have their own language, Kurdish and Farsi. Furthermore, both languages are part of the Iranian language and Western Iranian language as a subclassification.

Lol stop this bull!! Kurds are not turks.. Not Arabs.. Not Persians.. But kinda cousin with Persian.. Turks are Mongolian descents. And Kurds have nothing in comment with Turks! Whoever wrote this bull , it must be changed immediately..

Kur, Pis Pesar Son Kur كور مام Sohn

Just like Ali I stopped reading after Kurds are of Turkish descent. We are all HUMAN. And we should not be racist. BUT Its a lie. KURDS are IRANIAN people and have been living alongside PERSIANS for thousands of years just like brothers. AND real PERSIANS And real KURDS die for each other. Turks are also great people. we are all human. and that matters. BUT kurds are never TURKDS.

Go and get deal with something pleasing you. But not this subject.

Also Brother in Kurdish is Bra as it in Persian Bradar and originally it might come from the root Bira that is with vein/By vein; with bloodvessel, by blood vessel. So we can expand/translate it as Who comes from same vein/blood vessel. And the nearest meaing in Kurdish for ther and der in Brother, Brader is the Kurdish word Der which means outside. So it is impossible that Kurds have just dropped it from usage as Persians uses it. Because it is already in use by Kurds as the meaning outside. Here some Kurdish and Persian words for your comparison

The Kurds live in Iran, but they are considered a minority in the country. Aside from Iran, they also live in the neighboring countries of Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and other countries forming an unofficial settlement called Kurdistan. Meanwhile, the Persians are considered the main people of Iran. They are not confined to the country and can be found in countries from Iran to Afghanistan.

I guarantee you that you dont even know about your own culture never mind Persians , Persians were Sunni until th century ,then converted to Shiism, not by Arabs but by Persians , unlike you Kurds that call your daughters names like alla us Persians converted to Islam but stayed Persian even before Shiism. At the when Persian converted to Islam. Cyrus the great was no Kurd, Sassanian empire were no kurds, Zoroastrianism never came from a Kurd. Nor has anything to do yazadnsim that some of you Kurds still practis . Sorry pal Persians were not based on a Kurd nor came from one. We are called Iran which means land of aryans not anything else. Our language isnt half Farsi half Arabic either, Syrians were speaking Greek before they got conquered by Arabs, thats a ct, sorry so your language aint got tons of Arabic words in it eh? So does Turkish. So does Farsi! Why ? Because of the holy Quran and the influence of the Arabic language. Farsi has about thousand borrowed French words, that doesnt make us French!!! Where is the Kurdish land ? Persians are based on Kurds ok? So where is your main land? Why arent Persians scattered all over countries, like Syria, turkey and etc.because we are Persians and our land is one country called Iran and we live with our fellow people that call them selves Iranian with different s like Azaries , Armanians, Kurds and etc . Thats why unlike other countries like Iraq , when a war happens we all stick together and fight under one flag, we dont separate like whats going on in Iraq..please go read some history, I dont know what your mom and dad are telling you. Its bsPersians came from Kurds, wow nuta

Although Persian is counted as an HindoEuropean language it includes a lot of Arabic and Kurdish vocabulary. Kurdish is more ancient than Persian.

I stopped reading after Kurds are of Turkish descent. Get your cts straight; Kurds are an Iranian people just like Persians.

Kurds are known to have endured repression from other ethnic groups. In contrast, Persians are mous as conquerors and warriors in ancient history.

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Yes Kurdish is a base Language in IndoEuropean mily. I made a research that Kurdish a sole language rather that Persian. We say bra for son they sey bradar. We say xweh for sister they say kwahar we say khor or tav for sun they say af or khorshid. Kurdish is uniqe not even can be comparable with Persian.

Kurds and Persians are two ethnic people that primarily live in the country of Iran. As ethnic groups, they are mostly affiliated with their culture and traditions rather than their religious affiliations. The two ethnic groups belong to the four major ethnic people living in Iran.  The other ethnic groups are Arabs and Turks.

Grîn Beriistan Cry Grî ‫گری‬ Weinen, Schrei

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Based on my knowledge Kurds lived in Iran before Turks Then Turks migrated. One of the primative civilization is related to Kurdish people Hegmataneh. It seems that as long as Kurds dont have their own country, they are not truely recognized!

To the article writer What wrong with you man. Turkish is an Altaic Language. Kurdish is IndoEuropena language. I mean no relation

The two people also speak different languages. The Kurds speak in Kurdish while Persians speak Farsi, the dominant language in Iran. Both the Kurdish and Persian languages are part of the Iranian language, specifically the Western Iranian language.

Both ethnic groups have their own long histories. However, Kurds have remained nomads most of the time while Persians created settlements, even an empire. Persians are usually concentrated in Iran while the Kurds live in Kurdistan, an unofficial settlement and regarded as a region rather than a country.

Sara, you are now the biggest idiot Ive ever seen on the internet! Persians are Iranian and Kurds are Iranian. The languages are related, like English and German. Arabic got mixed in with all of our languages because they invaded us, just like how Latin words were mixed into Germanic languages like English after the Romans invaded them and spread Christianity. Kurds and Persians are brothers. You are ignorant! I bet youre not even Kurdish, youre probably another Azeri panturk spreading antiIranian propaganda! You SICKEN me!

KURDISTAN, The History of Existence, Resistance, and Liberation by Kurdish leader Abdullah Ocalan is going on in Kurdistan against the Zionist Jewish leaders conspiracies and the occupation of Kurdistan by Persian traitors from TamilIndia, Arab Islamic terrorist criminal from Africa and Turkish genocides criminal from Mongolia. It is no secret anymore that Jewish leader helped Darius son of Hystaspes and Rhodogune to destroy Median Empire note Rhodogune is the mother of Darius, she was the daughter of King Astyages of Medes and Queen Esther of Medes, Queen Esther is Jewish slave girl married king Astyages of Mede. The Zionist Jewish leaders are helping Barzani and Talabani milies to ide Kurd and Kurdistan now. But the war is waged on Kurds by Persian, Arabs, and Turks as these lines are written down in May Tampa, FL USA after years in exile.


on the other hand, KURDS ARE NOT TURKS!!!!. it doesnt need any brag as white is not black!!!. this is a post of some racist turks whom try to melt down Kurdish nationalist

Well you are very wrong. Kurds and Persians are Iranian people their languages are IndoEuropean and Turkish is Altaic. Kurds were living in MiddleEast before Turks came there and Kurds are related with Persians like Irish related with Scottish.

Çav Chashm* Eye Çaw ‫چاو Auge‬

M Zanana Feminine M مى feminin

Kurdish are close to the iranian persians but they are more nomadic and not as strongly organized for centuries like persians. But they share similar language and bloodline. so many yrs ago both these groups fought and thats why persians and kurds are not as close as should be. iranian persians are shiahs and kurds are mostly sunni and kurds are also close to the yazidi people.

Str Satara Star Astera ‫ئستره Stern

Hey man , Kurds are not Turks but Kurds are the new aryans just like the persians you informations is not correct .

Birçî Gorosnagi Hungry Birsî ‫بـرسى Begierig‬, hungrig

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Anîn Awurdan Bring Hawir ‫هاور bringen‬

Written by Celine. and updated on June , Articles on DifferenceBetween are general information, and are not intended to substitute for professional advice. The information is AS IS, WITH ALL FAULTS. User assumes all risk of use, damage, or injury. You agree that we have no liability for any damages.

Lol, where did you get your information from?!

Hi, Kurds are as Turk as Whisky is German. It has been the most ridiculous comment I have ever heard. No offence, but brush up on your knowledge on ethnology. Persians and Kurds are ethnologically considered cousins due to numerous similarities in their histories. Turks are simply poles apart. I mean it is absurd to bring up such topics unless you want to make a clown out of yourself.

Hey guys let me tell you the TRUTH. Im Persian, and I die for my dear Kurd friends. F..k the government. Kurds are Iranian just like Persians and Lurs and Baluchs and Gilaks and Azeries. Iranians are different from Turks and Arabs I respect them, and I dont mean to offend them.

Baran Baran Rain Baran باران regnen

As much as our language some almost the same. Kurds and iranian are not the same people. When the Assyrian empire ruled the land. There were kurds in the north Media and persians in the east Persia. They fought of the Assyrian empire together. And the first king was a median king Kurd. he ruled a few years. But got over throned by cyrus persian. Then the Persian empire began to rise. When the persian were at war whit Greece, the greeks called the Median. Because there were kurd median in the persian army. And the persians kept the name after that. Even when the greeks went to attack persia the were harassed by kurdish archers whom they may have thought to be persians. And the Zoroastrian religion who came from east Kurdistan west Iran and to whom was a kurd and preached in the kurdish areas first. The Persian had their own religion Mithra but the persian says that Zoroastrian is also a persian religion. and as we all know the winner of a war writes the history and not the losers.

I love kurdish people!!! But did they teach you guys this things in school or you acquired them by yourself. Because these are some of the craziest brication I have read in my life and Iam not even persian. I dont even know why I bother leaving a comment here obviously you been mistreated by persians and somehow you are trying to get back at them in this way.

As a Persian speaking Iranian , I love Kurdish speaking people language / culture wise I can relay to Kurdish so much more than Turkish Arabic , there are so many similarities between Persian Kurdish words culture , if Kurdish people were from Turkish descent, Turkish government wouldnt have killed so many of them instead wouldve helped them , Turkish language culture have nothing to do with Kurdish people , via Kurdistan, viva Iran .

Exactly Im laughing reading this . Its all wrong

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Both the Persians and the Kurds are two of the major ethnic groups in the country of Iran and in the Middle East. Both have their own unique culture, traditions, and language. Arabs and Turks comprise the other two of the four ethnic groups.

True to that, I completely agree with my bro Sirwan. Iran is the land for Aryans, not just Persians. We live here together with our Kurd brothers. And we all are suffering from our regime its not just Kurds that are being treated bad. I cannot imagine Iran without Kurds. And we can no longer call this country Iran without Kurds. We share the same culture, history and we shaped together the greatest empire that world have ever seen. and everything started since battle of Chaldoran, when parts of Kurdistan took apart from Iran. The ottoman empire got north western parts of Iran and they and arabs have treated them badly since then. Saddam Hussein also killed thousands of innocent Kurdish people who were living in his own country just like what he did to other Iranian people in years of war against Iran.

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Kurds did not come from turks. They are indoaryan race like tajiks, pashtuns, persians, afghandari, baluch, yazidi people etc. All their languages are similar.

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Kurdish language is in the same mily with Persian and thats for sure that Kurdish culture is closer to Persians. Also Persians, Kurds, Arabs in Levant or even Armenians have very similar cultures.

The Persians descended from the Aryan race, the origin of the modern Persian people. The name Iran itself is the Persian word for the country. The name was first used in as a replacement in Persia. In contrast, Kurds one of the indigenous people of the Mesopotamian plains.

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Is that a brother does to his other brother? Is it okay they ban Kurdish education in Iran?

The turks came in the middle ages and does not have anything to do whit kurd, iranian or arabs. they took land land from greeks, kurds, armenians and the western part of the persian empire whom belonged to the median kurds. The turks belong to Mongolia and came after Djingis Khan era.

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The Kurds are mostly ethnic people and do not have any independent religion of their own. On the other hand, Persians have Zoroastrianism as their regional religion.

So to be honest I havent read any further than kurds are from turkish descent.Kurds are Iranian wich means that they are Aryan people.I dont mean to harm any Turks and as you can tell by my name AZADERENazadfreekurdishand erenthe arriventurkishthat I am not full Kurd.My ther is a Kurd and my Mother a Turk but the mainly thing I wanted to tell is that you should research more a little bit.

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Kurt, Kin Kutah Short Kurt كورت kurz

Kurds are NOT Turkish. The iranis in the south of Iran have stolen Kurdish history and try to link themselves with Kurds for the most part. Everyone knows the language of the iranis is half Kurdish and half Arab lmo. In the ancient history, all those times you reading about Persians those were actually Kurdish. Persians are not even an ethnicity. They tried so hard to keep calling Kurds their brothers blah blah. Give me a break. Also every one knows that Zoroaster was born from a yezidi mily. its not really racial with Kurds tbh. The soranis also have different language but they are accepted by the bahdinis as Kurds. The reason why Persians will never be accepted is because they are crazy and they have some superiority complex. No the Kurds did not decend from Persians, they did not decend from Turks, nor did they decend from Arabs. Its pretty obvious what happened is the Kurds lived in the North while assyrians in the south. The Arabs came first with Islam. Then the Kurdish empires took form, the different language trees of Kurdish were already there. I am going to guess that the Arabs had some sort of power and that is how the religion of Shia came onto the Persians. Wouldnt that make much more sense? How else will you explain why Persians have half Kurdish and half arabic language. Why Persians are mostly Shia? And why Kurds are in general whiter, blonder and more ed eyes than Persians? Hahaha please. On top of that, the Kurds in Iraq dont give you the respect to call you Farsi or Persians. We call you arabified Kurds. Jus like the sorani. But we gonna take care of our sorani tribes, but Persians are just too racist and violent. Plus your govt created too many lies in your history books in schools for you to even understand. Give up your racism and realize there is no such pure race. Dont make yourself superior to Kurds, you are not. Nobody cares about being aryan. Only an Arab would get a superiority complex himself believe he is somehow special. You can see Kurds are tribalistic. That is how we keep ethnicity while remaining humble and civilized for thousands of years. Though tbh most civilized Kurds dont care about that either. How many times Ive heard from iranis the we are brothers, every response from kurds is we dont kill our brothers. please educate yourself and realize that the Persian ethnicity as you know it today didnt exist during the time the Persian empires existed, they were Kurdish.

Persians are the dominant ethnic group in Iran and considered its native people. Meanwhile, the Kurds are one of the minority ethnic groups. Persians are known to be descendants of the Aryan people while Kurds are one of the indigenous people of the Mesopotamian plains.

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Also you said Kurds, Arabs, Persians and Turks are the people in that region. That is not accurate. You forgot to mention the Turkic people. Not Turk but Turkic who are originally from mongolia and are the uzbekistan, kazakhstan, turkmenistan, turkey, azherbhaijan, tartars, kyrgistan etc.


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What Saras saying is percent true. Go and read some recent Kurdish history in Iran.

Persians have their own regional religion, Zoroastrianism, aside from the predominant religion of Islam. The Kurds do not have any independent religion, but they are also members of the religions that exist in the Middle East.

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This whole article is wrong, how can kurds come from turks if turks came from mongolia only thousand years ago while kurds have been in our land over thousand years and iranians came from kurds and persians even stole our religion zoroastrian they claim everything to be theres the media is all ke and lies trying hide the kurdish idenity.

The two terms are descriptions for a person who comes from a certain land. Kurds are known to be someone who lives or is affiliated with Kurdistan or the Kurdish culture. The same is applicable to Persians and their link to Persia now modern Iran and the history and culture of their people.

Both people have a long history as a people. The Kurds are mostly nomads and without a permanent settlement. There is no existing Kurdish nation or state. On the other hand, Persians have a permanent settlement. They have been living in the same land for thousands of years.  An example of this is the Achaemenid Empire that included many countries in its of power. It was later included in the Macedonian Empire under Alexander the Great.

Hey Sîrwan do NOT give a Sîr taste. You seem rather to be a Persian personality / rather a Persian n / rather a very ignorant uneducated Kurdish personality.

Zoroastrianism is belong to kurds not Persians rss. as, The Prophet Zardasht was from Kurdish nationalist. this case is little complicated, because kurds are a part of ancient Persian Groups, and kurds didnt got their independence yet as their country Kurdistan was ided into pieces irani Kurdistan,Syrian,Iraq and turkey. Zardasht Archaeology is located in irani kurdistan the city of hamadan. so it looks like Persian religion! but the reality is above.

we haved same country same relegion same culture very similar to persian or iran people more than turks .kurds are iraninan and will back to them

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persian and kurds are iranian give that look at anicent maps

In comparison, Persians are native Iranians and are considered the more progressive ethnic group compared to the Kurds.

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True to that, I completely agree with my bro Sirwan. Iran is the land for Aryans, not just Persians. We live here together with our Kurd brothers. And we all are suffering from our regime its not just Kurds that are being treated bad. I cannot imagine Iran without Kurds. And we can no longer call this country Iran without Kurds. We share the same culture, history and we shaped together the greatest empire that world have ever seen. and everything started since battle of Chaldoran, when parts of Kurdistan took apart from Iran.

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Kurds and Turks are diff races man. Turks are turkic and mongolian but kurds are indoaryan persians people. no doubt in that. they are like nomadic persian natives of the region they inhabit. turkic people migrated and invaded the kurds and the lands that were mostly persian land

First of all Kurds arent from Turkish origin. They are Iranian as like as Persians, Balochs, Pesthuns, Osets etc. Some part of Persian history stolen from Kurdish history for example Zoroastrianism is Kurdish religion, Medes are Kurds, Gutian people are Kurds, I.Ardeshir is Kurd, Madig is Kurd etc.

youve said, Persians have their own regional religion, Zoroastrianism. but

little suggestion for you, be critical thinker and do more researches. then edit your article.

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Kurds are more ancient than turks persian arabs we have our own religion ezedi our history go back to bcDifferences Between Kurds and Persiapersian religionns