Parthianpersian religion

Parthianpersian religionAhrimanas the Principle of Evil. We need not doubt that, in word, the Parthians from first to last admitted this antagonism, and professed a belief in Ormazd as the supreme god, and a dread of Ahriman and his ministers. But practically, their religious aspirations rested, not on these dim abstractions, but on beings whose existence they could better realize, and whom they could feel to be less remote from themselves. The actual devotion of the Parthians was offered to the Sun and Moon, to deities who were supposed to preside over the royal house, and to ancestral idols which each mily possessed, and conveyed with it from place to place with every change of habitation.

The Sun was saluted at his rising, was worshipped in temples, under the name ofMithra, with sacrifices and offerings; had statues erected in his honor, and was usually associated with the lesser luminary. The deities of the royal house were probably eithergenii, ministers of Ormazd, to whom was committed the special protection of the monarchs and their milies, like thebagaha vithiyaof the Persians, or else the ancestors of the reigning monarch, to whom a qualified inity seems to have been assigned in the later times of the empire. The Parthians kings usually swore by these deities on solemn occasions; and other members of the royal mily made use of the same oath. The main worship, however, of the great mass of the people, even when they were of the royal stock, was concentrated upon ancestral s, which had a place sacred to them in each house, and received the constant adoration of the household.

Very little is known as to the religion of the Parthians. The Parthian Empire, being culturally and politically erse, had a variety of religious systems and beliefs, the most widespread being those dedicated to Greek and Iranian religions .It seems probable that during the Persian period they submitted to the Zoroastrian system, which was generally maintained by the Achaemenian kings, acquiescing, like the great bulk of the conquered nations, in the religious views of their conquerors; but as this was not their own religion, we may conclude that they were at no time very zealous followers of the Bactrian prophet, and that as age succeeded age they became continually more lukewarm in their feelings, and more lax in their religious practice. The essence of Zoroastrian belief was dualism, recognition ofAhura Mazdaor Ormazd as the great Principle of Good, and of Angra Mainyu or

While thus lax and changeful in their own religious practice, the Parthians were, naturally, tolerant of a variety of creeds among their subjects. Fire altars were maintained, and Zoroastrian zeal was allowed to nourish in the dependent kingdom of Persia. In the Greek cities the Olympian gods were permitted to receive the veneration of thousands, while in Babylon, Nearda, and Nisibis the Jews enjoyed the free exercise of their comparatively pure and elevated religion. No restrictions seem to have been placed on proselytism, and Judaism certainly boasted many converts from the heathen in Adiabene, Charax Spasini, and elsewhere. Christianity also penetrated the Parthian provinces to a considerable extent, and in one Parthian country, at any rate, seems to have become the state religion. The kings of Osrhoene are thought to have been Christians from the time of the Antonines, if not from that of our Lord; and a nourishing church was certainly eslished at Edessa before the end of the second century.

Greek gods such as Zeus, Pallas , Nike and Apollo appear on Parthian coins , it is hard to say how much common such worship was outside of the Greek cities. No Zoroastern motifs appear on coins, suggesting a weaking of its influence during this period.

In the early times of the empire the Magi were held in high repute, and most of the peculiar tenets and rites of the Magian religion were professed and followed by the Parthians. Elemental worship was practised. Fire was, no doubt, held sacred, and there was an especial reverence for rivers. Dead bodies were not burned, but were exposed to be devoured by birds and beasts of prey, after which the dry bones were collected and placed in tombs. The Magi formed a large portion of the great national council, which elected and, if need were, deposed the kings. But in course of time much laxity was introduced. The Arsacid monarchs of Armenia allowed the Sacred Fire of Ormazd, which ought to have been kept continually burning, to go out; and we can scarcely suppose but that the Parthian Arsacidae shared their negligence. Respect for the element of fire so entirely passed away, that we hear of the later Parthians burning their dead. The Magi fell into disrepute, and, if not expelled from their place in the council, at any rate found themselves despised and deprived of influence. The later Parthian religion can have been little more than a worship of the Sun and Moon, and of the teraphim, or sacred s, which were the most precious possession of each household.

The Parthian Jews who were witnesses of the miraculous events which signalized the day of Pentecost may have, in some cases, taken with them the new religion to the land where they had their residence; or the Apostle, St. Thomas, may as Eusebius declares have carried the Gospel into the regions beyond the Euphrates, and have planted the Christian Church in the countries out of which the Jewish Church sprang. Besides the nourishing community of Edessa, which was predominantly, if not wholly, Christian from the middle of the second century, many converts were, we are told, to be found among the inhabitants of Persia, Media, Parthia Proper, and even Bactria. The infusion, however, was not sufficient to leaven to any serious extent the corrupt mass of heathenism into which it was projected; and we cannot say that the general character of the Parthian empire, or of the manners and customs of its subjects, was importantly affected by the new religion, though it had an extraordinary influence over iniduals.

Statue of a Parthian Hatra king holding a votive figure. Hatra was an ancient city in the Ninawa Governorate and alJazira region of Iraq, near Mosul. It was known as alHadr, a name which appears once in ancient inscriptions, and it was in the ancient Persian province of Khvarvaran. It was built circa rdnd centuries BCE and flourished st to nd centuries CE under the Parthians. Many articts and much of the remains of the city destroyed by ISIS .

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Thehistory of Zanzibarwould be incomplete without the cloves, nutmeg, cinnamon, pepper and many other spices which areessential ingredientin a Zanzibaris everyday life, it is the islands connection tospices and herbs. Zanzibar and Spice is a romantic entanglement that dates back to the th century. Apart from being an important commodity on the trade routes. They can be seen in the plantations just outside Zanzibar town, this is also  a ntastic opportunity to see the countryside and rural areas ofZanzibarand also connect with local people.

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Differences Between Kurds and Persiapersian religionns

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A Kurdish intellectual who was murdered os by chauvinist Turkish agents whose Musa Anter was telling in his book Hatıralarım Memoirs that Persian in Kurdish Parsek which means Beggar. In ancient times they were like nomad Gypsy coming to our cities/villages and begging from us for something to eat.

Im Kurd, and I love my Persian brothers. Kurds are not Turk or Arab. We are not Persian either, but We have same race, culture and similar language with Persians. Iran is nothing without kurds, and believe me, I have never seen any Persian to behave superior to me. Some guys here do not live in Iran, and under some not all wrong news they say some wrong things about Iran. Kurds dont like the government just like most Persians, so please please lets separate Iranian people from its government. Iran is consisted of several ethnic groups that are are all Iranian except arabs, Persians, Azeries, Kurds, Lurs, Baluchs etc. If there is a bad thing In Iran it is for all Iranians, not only kurds. To make a long story short, I love my country Iran, and In ct, I have to say that I also consider the Kurds of Turkey, Iraq and Syria Iranian because their race is Iranian, their language is Iranian, and also their culture, like Nowruz, is Iranian.

Kurds and persians live in Iranian peninsula for thousands of years. Kurds are Medes ethnic group who used to live alongside persians and both are Iranian. Achemenid empire constituted both of these ethnic groups. In ct, Cyrus the greats ther was a Persian and her mother was MedesKurd.

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and relegions in the past before years ago before muslims invade persian empire .god damn arabs

Hey , kurds in origin are yezdanism but persian are shia muslims , kurds are not aryan iran or turan turkish , and persian never had a state while kurds had vassals and small kingdoms

Mr Mard* Man Pyaw پـيــاو Mann

What happened to all of the? They ALL tortured then savagely killed.


read about Mahabad Republic And Qazi Muhammad in s and Kurdish revolt in s and

Persians stole what religion and culture from Kurds? You out of your mind or what. Persians stole from a small minority compare to them and based their religion and culture on theirs eh lol interesting. Thats why Kurds are like Jews. Still without a land

Bab, bav* Padar* Father Bab باب Vater

Ba Bad Wind Ba با Blähung, Wind

For example Door is in Kurdish Derî and Derî is comes from the word outside der ve in Kurdish we can translate it as thing that separates outside

Dot, Keç Dokhtar*DaugtherKiç کچ Tochter

Both ethnic groups have their own language, Kurdish and Farsi. Furthermore, both languages are part of the Iranian language and Western Iranian language as a subclassification.

Lol stop this bull!! Kurds are not turks.. Not Arabs.. Not Persians.. But kinda cousin with Persian.. Turks are Mongolian descents. And Kurds have nothing in comment with Turks! Whoever wrote this bull , it must be changed immediately..

Kur, Pis Pesar Son Kur كور مام Sohn

Just like Ali I stopped reading after Kurds are of Turkish descent. We are all HUMAN. And we should not be racist. BUT Its a lie. KURDS are IRANIAN people and have been living alongside PERSIANS for thousands of years just like brothers. AND real PERSIANS And real KURDS die for each other. Turks are also great people. we are all human. and that matters. BUT kurds are never TURKDS.

Go and get deal with something pleasing you. But not this subject.

Also Brother in Kurdish is Bra as it in Persian Bradar and originally it might come from the root Bira that is with vein/By vein; with bloodvessel, by blood vessel. So we can expand/translate it as Who comes from same vein/blood vessel. And the nearest meaing in Kurdish for ther and der in Brother, Brader is the Kurdish word Der which means outside. So it is impossible that Kurds have just dropped it from usage as Persians uses it. Because it is already in use by Kurds as the meaning outside. Here some Kurdish and Persian words for your comparison

The Kurds live in Iran, but they are considered a minority in the country. Aside from Iran, they also live in the neighboring countries of Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and other countries forming an unofficial settlement called Kurdistan. Meanwhile, the Persians are considered the main people of Iran. They are not confined to the country and can be found in countries from Iran to Afghanistan.

I guarantee you that you dont even know about your own culture never mind Persians , Persians were Sunni until th century ,then converted to Shiism, not by Arabs but by Persians , unlike you Kurds that call your daughters names like alla us Persians converted to Islam but stayed Persian even before Shiism. At the when Persian converted to Islam. Cyrus the great was no Kurd, Sassanian empire were no kurds, Zoroastrianism never came from a Kurd. Nor has anything to do yazadnsim that some of you Kurds still practis . Sorry pal Persians were not based on a Kurd nor came from one. We are called Iran which means land of aryans not anything else. Our language isnt half Farsi half Arabic either, Syrians were speaking Greek before they got conquered by Arabs, thats a ct, sorry so your language aint got tons of Arabic words in it eh? So does Turkish. So does Farsi! Why ? Because of the holy Quran and the influence of the Arabic language. Farsi has about thousand borrowed French words, that doesnt make us French!!! Where is the Kurdish land ? Persians are based on Kurds ok? So where is your main land? Why arent Persians scattered all over countries, like Syria, turkey and etc.because we are Persians and our land is one country called Iran and we live with our fellow people that call them selves Iranian with different s like Azaries , Armanians, Kurds and etc . Thats why unlike other countries like Iraq , when a war happens we all stick together and fight under one flag, we dont separate like whats going on in Iraq..please go read some history, I dont know what your mom and dad are telling you. Its bsPersians came from Kurds, wow nuta

Although Persian is counted as an HindoEuropean language it includes a lot of Arabic and Kurdish vocabulary. Kurdish is more ancient than Persian.

I stopped reading after Kurds are of Turkish descent. Get your cts straight; Kurds are an Iranian people just like Persians.

Kurds are known to have endured repression from other ethnic groups. In contrast, Persians are mous as conquerors and warriors in ancient history.

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Yes Kurdish is a base Language in IndoEuropean mily. I made a research that Kurdish a sole language rather that Persian. We say bra for son they sey bradar. We say xweh for sister they say kwahar we say khor or tav for sun they say af or khorshid. Kurdish is uniqe not even can be comparable with Persian.

Kurds and Persians are two ethnic people that primarily live in the country of Iran. As ethnic groups, they are mostly affiliated with their culture and traditions rather than their religious affiliations. The two ethnic groups belong to the four major ethnic people living in Iran.  The other ethnic groups are Arabs and Turks.

Grîn Beriistan Cry Grî ‫گری‬ Weinen, Schrei

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Based on my knowledge Kurds lived in Iran before Turks Then Turks migrated. One of the primative civilization is related to Kurdish people Hegmataneh. It seems that as long as Kurds dont have their own country, they are not truely recognized!

To the article writer What wrong with you man. Turkish is an Altaic Language. Kurdish is IndoEuropena language. I mean no relation

The two people also speak different languages. The Kurds speak in Kurdish while Persians speak Farsi, the dominant language in Iran. Both the Kurdish and Persian languages are part of the Iranian language, specifically the Western Iranian language.

Both ethnic groups have their own long histories. However, Kurds have remained nomads most of the time while Persians created settlements, even an empire. Persians are usually concentrated in Iran while the Kurds live in Kurdistan, an unofficial settlement and regarded as a region rather than a country.

Sara, you are now the biggest idiot Ive ever seen on the internet! Persians are Iranian and Kurds are Iranian. The languages are related, like English and German. Arabic got mixed in with all of our languages because they invaded us, just like how Latin words were mixed into Germanic languages like English after the Romans invaded them and spread Christianity. Kurds and Persians are brothers. You are ignorant! I bet youre not even Kurdish, youre probably another Azeri panturk spreading antiIranian propaganda! You SICKEN me!

KURDISTAN, The History of Existence, Resistance, and Liberation by Kurdish leader Abdullah Ocalan is going on in Kurdistan against the Zionist Jewish leaders conspiracies and the occupation of Kurdistan by Persian traitors from TamilIndia, Arab Islamic terrorist criminal from Africa and Turkish genocides criminal from Mongolia. It is no secret anymore that Jewish leader helped Darius son of Hystaspes and Rhodogune to destroy Median Empire note Rhodogune is the mother of Darius, she was the daughter of King Astyages of Medes and Queen Esther of Medes, Queen Esther is Jewish slave girl married king Astyages of Mede. The Zionist Jewish leaders are helping Barzani and Talabani milies to ide Kurd and Kurdistan now. But the war is waged on Kurds by Persian, Arabs, and Turks as these lines are written down in May Tampa, FL USA after years in exile.


on the other hand, KURDS ARE NOT TURKS!!!!. it doesnt need any brag as white is not black!!!. this is a post of some racist turks whom try to melt down Kurdish nationalist

Well you are very wrong. Kurds and Persians are Iranian people their languages are IndoEuropean and Turkish is Altaic. Kurds were living in MiddleEast before Turks came there and Kurds are related with Persians like Irish related with Scottish.

Çav Chashm* Eye Çaw ‫چاو Auge‬

M Zanana Feminine M مى feminin

Kurdish are close to the iranian persians but they are more nomadic and not as strongly organized for centuries like persians. But they share similar language and bloodline. so many yrs ago both these groups fought and thats why persians and kurds are not as close as should be. iranian persians are shiahs and kurds are mostly sunni and kurds are also close to the yazidi people.

Str Satara Star Astera ‫ئستره Stern

Hey man , Kurds are not Turks but Kurds are the new aryans just like the persians you informations is not correct .

Birçî Gorosnagi Hungry Birsî ‫بـرسى Begierig‬, hungrig

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Lol, where did you get your information from?!

Hi, Kurds are as Turk as Whisky is German. It has been the most ridiculous comment I have ever heard. No offence, but brush up on your knowledge on ethnology. Persians and Kurds are ethnologically considered cousins due to numerous similarities in their histories. Turks are simply poles apart. I mean it is absurd to bring up such topics unless you want to make a clown out of yourself.

Hey guys let me tell you the TRUTH. Im Persian, and I die for my dear Kurd friends. F..k the government. Kurds are Iranian just like Persians and Lurs and Baluchs and Gilaks and Azeries. Iranians are different from Turks and Arabs I respect them, and I dont mean to offend them.

Baran Baran Rain Baran باران regnen

As much as our language some almost the same. Kurds and iranian are not the same people. When the Assyrian empire ruled the land. There were kurds in the north Media and persians in the east Persia. They fought of the Assyrian empire together. And the first king was a median king Kurd. he ruled a few years. But got over throned by cyrus persian. Then the Persian empire began to rise. When the persian were at war whit Greece, the greeks called the Median. Because there were kurd median in the persian army. And the persians kept the name after that. Even when the greeks went to attack persia the were harassed by kurdish archers whom they may have thought to be persians. And the Zoroastrian religion who came from east Kurdistan west Iran and to whom was a kurd and preached in the kurdish areas first. The Persian had their own religion Mithra but the persian says that Zoroastrian is also a persian religion. and as we all know the winner of a war writes the history and not the losers.

I love kurdish people!!! But did they teach you guys this things in school or you acquired them by yourself. Because these are some of the craziest brication I have read in my life and Iam not even persian. I dont even know why I bother leaving a comment here obviously you been mistreated by persians and somehow you are trying to get back at them in this way.

As a Persian speaking Iranian , I love Kurdish speaking people language / culture wise I can relay to Kurdish so much more than Turkish Arabic , there are so many similarities between Persian Kurdish words culture , if Kurdish people were from Turkish descent, Turkish government wouldnt have killed so many of them instead wouldve helped them , Turkish language culture have nothing to do with Kurdish people , via Kurdistan, viva Iran .

Exactly Im laughing reading this . Its all wrong

Dev Dahan Mouth Dam ‫ده م‬ Mund

Both the Persians and the Kurds are two of the major ethnic groups in the country of Iran and in the Middle East. Both have their own unique culture, traditions, and language. Arabs and Turks comprise the other two of the four ethnic groups.

True to that, I completely agree with my bro Sirwan. Iran is the land for Aryans, not just Persians. We live here together with our Kurd brothers. And we all are suffering from our regime its not just Kurds that are being treated bad. I cannot imagine Iran without Kurds. And we can no longer call this country Iran without Kurds. We share the same culture, history and we shaped together the greatest empire that world have ever seen. and everything started since battle of Chaldoran, when parts of Kurdistan took apart from Iran. The ottoman empire got north western parts of Iran and they and arabs have treated them badly since then. Saddam Hussein also killed thousands of innocent Kurdish people who were living in his own country just like what he did to other Iranian people in years of war against Iran.

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Kurds did not come from turks. They are indoaryan race like tajiks, pashtuns, persians, afghandari, baluch, yazidi people etc. All their languages are similar.

Mam, ApAmoo, MamPaternal uncleMam مام Onkel

Agir Atash* Fire Agir ‫ئاگر Feuer‬

Kurdish language is in the same mily with Persian and thats for sure that Kurdish culture is closer to Persians. Also Persians, Kurds, Arabs in Levant or even Armenians have very similar cultures.

The Persians descended from the Aryan race, the origin of the modern Persian people. The name Iran itself is the Persian word for the country. The name was first used in as a replacement in Persia. In contrast, Kurds one of the indigenous people of the Mesopotamian plains.

Qic, Hur Kuchak* Small Çûk ‫چووک klein

Is that a brother does to his other brother? Is it okay they ban Kurdish education in Iran?

The turks came in the middle ages and does not have anything to do whit kurd, iranian or arabs. they took land land from greeks, kurds, armenians and the western part of the persian empire whom belonged to the median kurds. The turks belong to Mongolia and came after Djingis Khan era.

Bra Bradar* Brother Bira برا Bruder

The Kurds are mostly ethnic people and do not have any independent religion of their own. On the other hand, Persians have Zoroastrianism as their regional religion.

So to be honest I havent read any further than kurds are from turkish descent.Kurds are Iranian wich means that they are Aryan people.I dont mean to harm any Turks and as you can tell by my name AZADERENazadfreekurdishand erenthe arriventurkishthat I am not full Kurd.My ther is a Kurd and my Mother a Turk but the mainly thing I wanted to tell is that you should research more a little bit.

Jîn Zandagi Life Jîn ‫ژ‬ين Leben

Kurt, Kin Kutah Short Kurt كورت kurz

Kurds are NOT Turkish. The iranis in the south of Iran have stolen Kurdish history and try to link themselves with Kurds for the most part. Everyone knows the language of the iranis is half Kurdish and half Arab lmo. In the ancient history, all those times you reading about Persians those were actually Kurdish. Persians are not even an ethnicity. They tried so hard to keep calling Kurds their brothers blah blah. Give me a break. Also every one knows that Zoroaster was born from a yezidi mily. its not really racial with Kurds tbh. The soranis also have different language but they are accepted by the bahdinis as Kurds. The reason why Persians will never be accepted is because they are crazy and they have some superiority complex. No the Kurds did not decend from Persians, they did not decend from Turks, nor did they decend from Arabs. Its pretty obvious what happened is the Kurds lived in the North while assyrians in the south. The Arabs came first with Islam. Then the Kurdish empires took form, the different language trees of Kurdish were already there. I am going to guess that the Arabs had some sort of power and that is how the religion of Shia came onto the Persians. Wouldnt that make much more sense? How else will you explain why Persians have half Kurdish and half arabic language. Why Persians are mostly Shia? And why Kurds are in general whiter, blonder and more ed eyes than Persians? Hahaha please. On top of that, the Kurds in Iraq dont give you the respect to call you Farsi or Persians. We call you arabified Kurds. Jus like the sorani. But we gonna take care of our sorani tribes, but Persians are just too racist and violent. Plus your govt created too many lies in your history books in schools for you to even understand. Give up your racism and realize there is no such pure race. Dont make yourself superior to Kurds, you are not. Nobody cares about being aryan. Only an Arab would get a superiority complex himself believe he is somehow special. You can see Kurds are tribalistic. That is how we keep ethnicity while remaining humble and civilized for thousands of years. Though tbh most civilized Kurds dont care about that either. How many times Ive heard from iranis the we are brothers, every response from kurds is we dont kill our brothers. please educate yourself and realize that the Persian ethnicity as you know it today didnt exist during the time the Persian empires existed, they were Kurdish.

Persians are the dominant ethnic group in Iran and considered its native people. Meanwhile, the Kurds are one of the minority ethnic groups. Persians are known to be descendants of the Aryan people while Kurds are one of the indigenous people of the Mesopotamian plains.

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Also you said Kurds, Arabs, Persians and Turks are the people in that region. That is not accurate. You forgot to mention the Turkic people. Not Turk but Turkic who are originally from mongolia and are the uzbekistan, kazakhstan, turkmenistan, turkey, azherbhaijan, tartars, kyrgistan etc.


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What Saras saying is percent true. Go and read some recent Kurdish history in Iran.

Persians have their own regional religion, Zoroastrianism, aside from the predominant religion of Islam. The Kurds do not have any independent religion, but they are also members of the religions that exist in the Middle East.

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This whole article is wrong, how can kurds come from turks if turks came from mongolia only thousand years ago while kurds have been in our land over thousand years and iranians came from kurds and persians even stole our religion zoroastrian they claim everything to be theres the media is all ke and lies trying hide the kurdish idenity.

The two terms are descriptions for a person who comes from a certain land. Kurds are known to be someone who lives or is affiliated with Kurdistan or the Kurdish culture. The same is applicable to Persians and their link to Persia now modern Iran and the history and culture of their people.

Both people have a long history as a people. The Kurds are mostly nomads and without a permanent settlement. There is no existing Kurdish nation or state. On the other hand, Persians have a permanent settlement. They have been living in the same land for thousands of years.  An example of this is the Achaemenid Empire that included many countries in its of power. It was later included in the Macedonian Empire under Alexander the Great.

Hey Sîrwan do NOT give a Sîr taste. You seem rather to be a Persian personality / rather a Persian n / rather a very ignorant uneducated Kurdish personality.

Zoroastrianism is belong to kurds not Persians rss. as, The Prophet Zardasht was from Kurdish nationalist. this case is little complicated, because kurds are a part of ancient Persian Groups, and kurds didnt got their independence yet as their country Kurdistan was ided into pieces irani Kurdistan,Syrian,Iraq and turkey. Zardasht Archaeology is located in irani kurdistan the city of hamadan. so it looks like Persian religion! but the reality is above.

we haved same country same relegion same culture very similar to persian or iran people more than turks .kurds are iraninan and will back to them

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persian and kurds are iranian give that look at anicent maps

In comparison, Persians are native Iranians and are considered the more progressive ethnic group compared to the Kurds.

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Celine. Differences Between Kurds and Persians. DifferenceBetween. June ,

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True to that, I completely agree with my bro Sirwan. Iran is the land for Aryans, not just Persians. We live here together with our Kurd brothers. And we all are suffering from our regime its not just Kurds that are being treated bad. I cannot imagine Iran without Kurds. And we can no longer call this country Iran without Kurds. We share the same culture, history and we shaped together the greatest empire that world have ever seen. and everything started since battle of Chaldoran, when parts of Kurdistan took apart from Iran.

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Kurds and Turks are diff races man. Turks are turkic and mongolian but kurds are indoaryan persians people. no doubt in that. they are like nomadic persian natives of the region they inhabit. turkic people migrated and invaded the kurds and the lands that were mostly persian land

First of all Kurds arent from Turkish origin. They are Iranian as like as Persians, Balochs, Pesthuns, Osets etc. Some part of Persian history stolen from Kurdish history for example Zoroastrianism is Kurdish religion, Medes are Kurds, Gutian people are Kurds, I.Ardeshir is Kurd, Madig is Kurd etc.

youve said, Persians have their own regional religion, Zoroastrianism. but

little suggestion for you, be critical thinker and do more researches. then edit your article.

Nû Taza, JadidArabic* New Nw ‫نـوێ neu‬

Kurds are more ancient than turks persian arabs we have our own religion ezedi our history go back to bcDifferences Between Kurds and Persiapersian religionns

Spartans Implements of persian cultureDeath

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Kurpersian cultured

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own large Shʿite population. TheKurdish minority, which had resorted to terrorism in pursuit of its goal of aKurdish state to be carved out of Turkey, Iraq, and Iran, also presented an intracle problem. Finally, the Iraqi government of Saddam Hussein hoped to use the opportunity of Irans apparent

The Kurdish language is a West Iranian language related toPersianandPashto. The Kurds are thought to number from million to million, includingcommunitiesin Armenia,GeorgiaKazakhstanLebanon, Syria, and Europe, but sources for this information differ widely because of differingcriteriaofethnicity, religion, and language; statistics may also be manipulated for political purposes.

Anatolia, the peninsula of land that today constitutes the Asian portion of Turkey. Because of its location at the point where the continents of Asia and Europe meet, Anatolia was, from the beginnings of civilization, a crossroads for numerous peoples migrating or conquering from

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Areas of Kurdish settlement in Southwest Asia.

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In traditional Kurdish society,marriagewas generally endogamous. In nonurban areas, males usually marry at age and females at age . Households typically consist of ther, mother, and children.Polygamy, permitted byIslamic law, is sometimes practiced, although it is forbidden bycivil lawin Turkey. The strength of theextended milysties to the tribe varies with the way of life. Kurdish womenwho traditionally have been more active in public life than Turkish,Arab, and Iranian womenas well as Kurdish men, have taken advantage of urban educational and employment opportunities, especially in prerevolutionary Iran.

The first Kurdish news appeared in and was published at intervals until . It was revived atIstanbulin when the first Kurdish political club, with anaffiliatedcultural society, was also founded and again in Cairo during World War I. TheTreaty of Svres, drawn up in , provided for an autonomous Kurdistan but was never ratified; theTreaty of Lausanne, which replaced the Treaty of Svres, made no mention of Kurdistan or of the Kurds. Thus the opportunity to unify the Kurds in a nation of their own was lost. Indeed, Kurdistan after the war was more fragmented than before, and various separatist movements arose among Kurdish groups.

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The principal unit in traditional Kurdish society was thetribe, typically led by a sheikh or an aga, whose rule was firm. Tribal identification and the sheikhs authority are still felt, though to a lesser degree, in the large urban areas. Detribalization proceeded intermittently as Kurdishculturebecame urbanized and was nominallyassimilatedinto several nations.

Despite their longstanding occupation of a particular region of the world, the Kurds never achieved nationstate status. Their reputation for military prowess has made them much in demand as mercenaries in many armies. The sultanSaladin, best known to the Western world for exploits in theCrusades, epitomizes the Kurdish military reputation.

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Although estimates of their precise numbers vary, theKurds are reckoned to be the fourth largest ethnic group in the Middle East, following Arabs, Turks, and Persians. There are importantKurdish minorities in Iraq, Iran, Turkey, and Syria, and IraqsKurds are concentrated in

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Kurds also felt strong assimilationist pressure from the national government in Iran and endured religious persecution by that countrysShʿiteMuslim majority. Shortly afterWorld War II, theSoviet Unionbacked the eslishment of an independent country around the largely Kurdish city ofMahbd, in northwestern Iran. The socalled Republic of Mahbd collapsed after Soviet withdrawal in , but about that same time the Kurdish Democratic Party of Iran KDPI was eslished. Thereafter, the KDPI engaged in lowlevel hostilities with the Iranian government into the st century.

, member of an ethnic and linguistic group living in theTaurus Mountainsof easternAnatolia, theZagros Mountainsof westernArmenia, and otheradjacentareas. Most of the Kurds live incontiguousareas of Iran, Iraq, andTurkeya somewhat loosely defined geographic region generally referred to asKurdistanLand of the Kurds. The name has differentconnotationsin Iran and Iraq, which officially recognize internal entities by this name Irans northwestern province of Kordestn and Iraqs Kurdishautonomousregion. A sizable noncontiguous Kurdish population also exists in theKhorsnregion, situated in Irans northeast.

Kurds Student Encyclopedia Ages and up

Violence and insility in Iraq following the removal of Saddam Hussein and in Syria following the outbreak of civil war in threatened the security of Kurdish communities but also offered new opportunities for Kurds to advance their claims toautonomy. The primary threat to Kurds was the extremistIslamic State in Iraq and the LevantISIL, which captured and occupied territory adjacent to Kurdish areas in Iraq and Syria in . Kurdish fighters in northern Syria entered into heavy fighting with ISIL and quickly proved to be some of the most effective ground forces against the group. Meanwhile, Iraqi Kurdish forces participated in a multinational campaign to expel ISIL from its strongholds in northern and western Iraq.

The Kurdish language and traditional way of life

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thcentury international relations The Soviets in Afghanistan

the Shaṭṭ alʿArab waterway, dissidentKurdish populations in the north of Iraq took advantage of the war to agitate for autonomy. Hussein struck back at theKurds in genocidal shion, bombing their villages with chemical weapons and poison gas. In May Iraq launched a massive surprise attack that drove

With the help of theUnited States, however, the Kurds were able to eslish a safe haven that included most areas of Kurdish settlement in northern Iraq, where the IKDP and Patriotic Union of Kurdistana ction that split from the IKDP in created an autonomous civil authority that was, for the most part, free from interference by the Iraqi government. The Kurds were particularly successful in that countrys elections, held following the ll ofSaddam Husseinand theBaʿth Partyin , and in mid the first session of the Kurdish parliament wasconvenedinIrbl.

Taurus Mountains, mountain range in southern Turkey, a great chain running parallel to the Mediterranean coast. The system extends along a curve from Lake Egridir in the west to the upper reaches of the Euphrates River in the east. Aladağ , feet [, m] in the Taurus

The traditional Kurdish way of life wasnomadic, revolving around sheep and goat herding throughout the Mesopotamian plains and the highlands of Turkey and Iran. Most Kurds practiced only marginal agriculture. The enforcement of national boundaries beginning afterWorld War I impeded the seasonal migrations of the flocks, forcing most of the Kurds to abandon their traditional ways for village life and settled rming; others entered nontraditional employment.

Although the pressure for Kurds toassimilatewas less intense in Iraq where the Kurdish language and culture have been freely practiced, government repression has been the most brutal. Shortlived armed rebellions occurred in Iraq in and , and a lowlevel armed insurgency took place throughout the s under the command ofMuṣṭaf alBarzn, leader of the Iraqi Kurdish Democratic Party IKDP, who had been an officer of the Republic of Mahbd. A iled peace accord with the Iraqi government led to another outbreak of fighting in , but an agreement between Iraq and Iranwhich had been supporting Kurdish effortslater that year led to a collapse of Kurdish resistance. Thousands of Kurds fled to Iran and Turkey. Lowintensity fighting followed. In the late s, IraqsBaʿth Partyinstituted a policy of settling Iraqi Arabs in areas with Kurdish majoritiesparticularly around the oilrich city ofKirkkand uprooting Kurds from those same regions. This policy accelerated in the s as large numbers of Kurds were forcibly relocated, particularly from areas along the Iranian border where Iraqi authorities suspected Kurds were aiding Iranian forces during theIranIraq War. What followed was one of the most brutal episodes in Kurdish history. In a series of operations between March andAugust, codenamed Anl Arabic Spoils, Iraqi forces sought to quell Kurdish resistance; the Iraqis used large quantities of chemical weapons on Kurdish civilians. Although technically it was not part of Anl, one of the largest chemical attacks during that period took place on March in and around the village of Ḥalabjah, when Iraqi troops killed as many as , Kurds with mustard gas and nerve agent. Despite these attacks, Kurds again rebelled following Iraqs defeat in thePersian Gulf War but were again brutally suppressedsparking another mass exodus.

Kurdishnationalismcame about through the conjunction of a variety of ctors, including the British introduction of the concept of private property, the partition of regions of Kurdish settlement by modern neighbouring states, and the influence of British, U.S., and Soviet interests in the Persian Gulf region. These ctors and others combined with the flowering of a nationalist movement among a very small minority of urban,intellectualKurds.

Picking up the pieces of the shattered olive industry near Mosul, Iraq, after Kurdish forces dislodged the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant ISIL in .

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The prehistory of the Kurds is poorly known, but their ancestors seem to have inhabited the same upland region for millennia. The records of the early empires ofMesopotamiacontain frequent references to mountain tribes with names resembling Kurd. The Kardouchoi whom the Greek historianXenophonspeaks of inAnabasisthey attacked the Ten Thousand near modern Zkh, Iraq, in bce may have been Kurds, but some scholars dispute this claim. The name Kurd can be dated with certainty to the time of the tribes conversion toIslamin the th centuryce. Most Kurds areSunniMuslims, and among them are many who practiceSufismand other mystical sects.

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Kurdish Institute A brief survey of The History of the Kurds

An Iraqi Kurdish woman working in a folk museum in Irbl, Iraq, winding lambs wool onto a spool to make handwoven carpets.

Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.

The Kurds of Turkey received unsympathetic treatment at the hands of the government, which tried to deprive them of their Kurdish identity by designating them Mountain Turks, by outlawing the Kurdish language or representing it as adialectof Turkish, and by forbidding them to wear distinctive Kurdish dress in or near the important administrative cities. The Turkish government suppressed Kurdish political agitation in the eastern provinces and encouraged the migration of Kurds to the urbanized western portion of Turkey, thus diluting the concentration of Kurdish population in the uplands. Periodic rebellions occurred, and in Abdullah Öcalanformed theKurdistan Workers Partyknown by its Kurdishacronym, PKK, a Marxist organization dedicated to creating an independent Kurdistan. Operating mainly from eastern Anatolia, PKK fighters engaged in guerrilla operations against government installations and perpetrated frequent acts ofterrorism. PKK attacks and government reprisals led to a state of virtual war in eastern Turkey during the s and s. Following Öcalans capture in , PKK activities were sharply curtailed for several years before the party resumed guerilla activities in . In , under pressure from theEuropean Unionin which Turkey sought membership, the government legalized broadcasts and education in the Kurdish language. Turkey continued to mount military operations against the PKK, including incursions into northern Iraq.

Encyclopdia Britannica articles are written in a neutral objective tone for a general audience.Kurpersian cultured

Zoroaster forgottepersian religionn prophet of the one God

Zoroaster forgottepersian religionn prophet of the one GodThose who might doubt how Persian imperial policy so decisively shaped what we know as Judaism should reflect on the remarkable and first ever declaration of belief in one, universal God by the biblical writer known asSecond Isaiahduring this period. Indeed Isaiah describes King Cyrus as a Messiah and the chosen instrument of Yahweh. Interestingly there is evidence that the Persian imperial policy towards the religion of their subject peoples to allow the traditional name of their gods to be retained but to revise the religions themselves in the of Zoroastrianism was also applied in Babylon and Egypt as well as Palestine.

Born at a time when the peoples of the Iranian plateau were evolving a settled agriculture, Zoroaster broke with the traditional Aryan religions of the region which closely mirrored those of India, and espoused the idea of a one good God Ahura Mazda. What became known eventually in the west as Zoroastrianism was also the first to link religious belief with profound attachment to personal morality. InZoroastrian eschatologythere is much which has become miliar from reading the Jewish and Christian testaments heaven, hell, redemption, the promise of a Sashoyant Messiah, the existence of an evil spirit Ahriman and most striking of all the prospect of a final battle for the salvation of man at the end of time between Ahura Mazda and Ahriman leading to the latters final defeat.

he tiny world wide communities of Zoroastrians are no doubt pleased to get any mention in Cif belief even if it is only to provide alphabetical balance to a list starting with the Bahs. Even those who take a close interest in the more exotic or esoteric of religions tend to have a vague grasp on what the followers of the ancient Persian or maybe Bactrian prophet,ZarathustraZoroaster in Greek born around BC actually believed. This is a great pity since even a nonbeliever must be impressed with the evidence of how the religious ideas first expressed by Zoroaster were fundamental in shaping what emerged as Judaism after the th century BC and thus deeply influenced the other Abrahamic religions Christianity and Islam.

The first encounter between the ancient peoples who developed historical Judaism and the Persian religious ideas of Zoroastrianism seems to have come either during or shortly after thecaptivity in Babylon. It was the Persian king of kings, Cyrus, who liberated the Hebrews from Babylon and one of his successors, Darius, who organised and funded the return of some of the captives probably along with many Persians to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem. Nehemiah and Ezra also reorganised the traditional religion of the Judaeans and Israelites. What emerged was a stricter monotheistic version which was consistent with basic beliefs of the Persian imperial religion Zoroastrianism.

What at the very least were the deep affinities between Zoroastrianism and Judaism goes a long way to explain what over the centuries were the close and friendly relations between Persians and Jews. The influence of th century religiouspolitical ideologies have poisoned that relationship. Perhaps a greater acknowledgement by Jews, Christians and Muslims of their Persian Zoroastrian inheritance would be a step to improving those relationships.

The Persian influence onJudaismwas powerful and long lasting. Certainly the profound belief in the end of days exhibited by the Dead Sea Scroll communities in the immediately preChristian era and indeed the s employed by the Christian evangelist, John, in his Apocalypse, a clear continuity of influence.

The main contact between westerners and Zoroastrians came in India where they were known asParseesPersians, descendants of those who took part in a large scale migration from Persia after the Muslim conquest of that country. Zoroastrians were held quite wrongly to worship fire because they kept a permanent flame in their temples. Some even questioned whether they were monotheists at all because Ahriman was referred to as an evil god. But all the Abrahamic religions have also struggled to explain evil in the world which is why they gave Satan an important role.

Some claim that a belief in monotheism in Judea developed a little before the Babylonian conquest and exile. But although there is evidence for a centralisation of the different Canaanite cults into the worship of Yahweh in the capital Jerusalem over this period the most which can be said was that a form ofmonolatry, a belief in one God for a particular people had emerged.

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persian cultureThe timeless appeal of the Persian rug

Foreign invaders, rock and rollers, and other menacing creatures have tramped, tread, and indulged to excess on the floral sprays and undulating patterns of this little Iranian masterpiece, which if history be any guide will come to see many more tales woven upon it in time.

Even on todays runways, Persian rugs and Persian rugrelated designs continue to impress shionistas. Aside from some of Suis designs, Hermes Persianinspired Tabriz collection from named after the Iranian city, and Givenchys Persian rugobsessed authumn/winter collection, Alexander McQueen autumn/winter is also worth noting for a lush headtotoe Persian rug getup, as is Dutch designer Marlou Breuls, who bagged the peoples choice award at the MercedesBenz Fashion Week in Amsterdam for an outfit largely composed of an actual Persian rug. Other labels including Etro and Liam Gallaghers Pretty Green have also long been extensive use of paisley in their designs.

Adored for their intricate designs, sumptuous colours, and inimile craftsmanship not to mention their investment value Persian rugs have not only found their way into households and interiors the world over, but also onto catwalks and concert stages, as well as in scores of artworks.

As with the highheeled shoes introduced to Europe by Iranian cavalrymen, and the later intuation with Iranian philosophy, ancient religion, and literature during the Enlightenment, Europeans in all corners of the continent were going gaga over Persian rugs.

Poetry, wine, and song such splendid things have, for millennia, constituted the very essence of the saffronstrewn Iranian soul and psyche.

Pharnabazus appeared dressed in clothes that would have been worth a lot of gold, Xenophon remarks in reference to a Persiansatrapin his Hellenica.And then his servants came forward to spread down for him the kind of soft rugs on which the Persians sit.

While Alexander may have burned to oblivion many of those soft rugs when he torched down Persepolis, the Persian rug like many other aspects of Iranian art and architecture not only survived, but thrived, too. In the centuries that followed, rugs continued to be associated with luxury, as well as indigenous folk culture. But it wasnt until the golden age ushered in by Shah Abbas the Great of the Savid dynasty in the th Century that the Persian rug truly became thePersian rug.

And, while Sadighis comments are certainly disheartening, judging from its enduring popularity and the many luxurious and stylish associations it enjoys, the Persian rug or, at least, theideaof the Persian rug isnt going to bite the dust anytime soon.

Prior to his reign, many of Europes carpets came from Ottoman Turkey due to its proximity, but, as a result of various reforms and treaties brought about by Shah Abbas r. , as well as Western colonial interests, the iles industry was given a muchneeded jolt, and began operating on a scale as never before seen. Shah Abbas really revived the carpetproduction industry, says Dr. Aime Froom, curator of the forthcoming Bestowing Beauty exhibition of Iranian artects at the Houston Museum of Fine Arts. Among many other items from the Sixth Century to the th Century, two showstoppers will be on view at the exhibition; a rug that once belonged to Italys King Umberto, as well as an animalthemed one from the Savid era.

Visionary designer Paul Poiret invented the catwalk and freed women from corsets

According to specialist and dealer Anahita Sadighi, owner of Berlins Arts of Asia, Chinese and Indian varieties have been a problem since the Revolution. Important makers left the country and moved to India, Pakistan, and China, resulting in the spread of cheaply produced, lowquality carpets, she says. Persian carpets had always been regarded as highly prestigious luxury goods that only the elite could afford. This changed dramatically after the shift.

View of Credit Houston Museum of Fine Arts

From the reign of Shah Abbas onwards, Persian rugs can be seen in works of master artists of the Dutch Golden Age and Flemish Baroque periods like Vermeer, Terborch, and Rubens. In Vermeers Young Woman with a Water Pitcherc. , for instance, the pitcher in question rests, according to the Met Museum, on a soft and thickly ured Persian carpet. The aristocratand jeweller Sir John Chardin, who visited Iran during the reign of Shah Abbas II, writes at length about rugs and other iles in his classic travelogue, and Virginia Woolfs genderbending protagonist Orlando was known to own some Persian rugs of his own as an ageless androgyne in Elizabethan England.

In spite of its domestic woes, the Persian rug still, as it has for aeons, holds a timeless, luxurious, opulent and extravagant allure and appeal.

Having, as usual, withstood the vagaries of time and fortune, Persian carpets once again found themselves all the rage in the th Century. In , the renowned Frenchhautecouturedesigner Paul Poiret hosted his Thousand and Second Night alternatively known as the Persian Fte a lavish, overthetop Persianthemed ball in the garden of his Paris residence. In addition to the extravagant Persianinspired outfits and congeries of exotic animals, there were, of course, choice Persian rugs laid out to complete the Persian effect.

Trade as well as exchanges in general with Europe increased, and the English, French, and Dutch, amongst others, were only too willing to lounge on their newfound luxuries from the land of Shakespeares Sophy Savid.

Bestowing Beauty Masterpieces from Persian Lands is on at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston until February ,

While these, undoubtedly, are some of the things for which Iranian culture is known and celebrated, perhaps no element of it is as recognisable and striking particularly abroad as Persian rugs and iles.

Theres something so magical about it, says Froom. It pervades so many different aspects of life.

Far from being a recent phenomenon, the scination with these iles is a history nearly as illustrious as the woven wonders themselves.

As for Persianrug patterns like paisley, which have become ubiquitous in shion and design, Suis words echo Frooms [Paisley] is so beautiful its not that you either like it or donteveryonelikes it I think theres a reason its been so successful in carpeting its a pattern you can really live with.

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This isnt to say that only Westerners have been intuated for centuries with Persian rugs, or that theyre seen as commonplace among Iranians.

In Iran, as well as in the Iranian diaspora, contemporary artists have been inspired by Persian rugs, and have employed related themes in their works. Babak Kazemis Exit of Shirin and Farhadseries, for instance, makes beautiful use of Persian rug ry in his mixedmedia photography, while diasporabased artists like Germanys Anahita Razmi and Americas Sara Rahbar have used actual Persian rugs in installation pieces dealing with their identities.

Persian rugs earned the spotlight elsewhere, too. In the s and s, acts like Crosby, Stills, Nash, and Young and the Grateful Dead performed on Persianrugstrewn floors, while in more recent years, luminaries such as Eric Clapton, and the late Tom Petty and Leonard Cohen were spotted crooning away on them onstage. Still today, stages are often strewn with them while artists strum and sing away.

Some decades later, in the swinging s, the scination reached new s. Iranian patterns such as paisley or Persian pickles an indigenous Persianrug staple were all the rage amongst the hitmakers of the day, who often sourced paisley shirts and other garments of Iranian origin e.g. kaftans from boutiques like Granny Takes a Trip on Londons Kings Road, and Kleptomania on Carnaby Street. According to veteran designer Anna Sui, who recently enjoyed a retrospective at Londons Fashion and Textile Museum in the s, paisley was kind ofit. As a kid, I saw all the rock stars wearing paisley, like Bob Dylan, the Rolling Stones, and the Beatles. In the late s and early s, leading shion publications like GQand Vogue,as well as lesserknown ones such as Honey,visited Iran to stage exotic photoshoots in environs like Eshan and Persepolis. Needless to say, there were rugs aplenty.

View of Credit Houston Museum of Fine Arts

From contemporary art to shion and even music, the symbolism of the mous Persian rug pervades in many of aspects of modern life beyond interior decoration, says Joobin Bekhrad.

View of Credit The Metropolitan Museum of Art

All, however, is not well in Paradise or,pairidaeza,as it was originally known in Old Persian. Even after the lifting of many crippling sanctions, the Persianrug industry is under threat from cheaper ctorymade alternatives from China and India, as well as a relative loss in interest from some middleclass Iranians, who are opting for other home dcor. Chinese rugs may be emblematic of having made it to Iggy PopHere comes my Chinese rug! he and David Bowie howl in the song Success on s Lust for Life but to weavers of Persian rugs, who knot them entirely by hand in an entirely organic process using natural dyes and sheeps wool, they are inferior substitutes threatening not only their livelihood and way of life many local producers are, as the Scythians were, nomads, but also a priceless aspect of their heritage.

While the earliestknown carpet wasnt discovered in modernday Iran, its story concerns the region and the Iranian people nonetheless. Dating back to the Fifth Century B.C., the Pazyryk carpet was discovered in the s in Siberia amongst other treasures of the Scythians an ethnic Iranic people, like the Persians and Kurds, as well as the Alans of Georgia and Russia, for instance. It was well preserved in ice. Aside from the Scythians Iranic ethnicity, archaeologists have surmised that the carpet itself may have found its way to Siberia from Persepolis in Iran, as the motifs featured on it bear a striking resemblance to those that can still be seen around the ancient Persian capital. Even in ancient times, as Greek writers like Xenophon attest to, the Persians were known for their carpets.

How paisley went from Persia to Scotland to shion staple

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Headlipersian culturenes

The Tehran project aims to look at Tehran from the point of view of the spaces that it occupies, both physical and metaphorical. This will allow the project to change focus, at times concentrating on micro studies of language and religion, and at others, zooming away to consider urban occupation and city planning. Inbetween the two, matters of ethnolinguistic make up and their relations to the occupation patterns, as well as specialized topics such as health and environmental issues can be studied in the city, based on their framing on a macro level and their studies on a micro one.

One of the most remarkable empires and civilizations of the first millennium CE was that of the Sasanian Empire. As one of the two great powers of late antiquity, the Sasanian domain eventually encompassed not only modern day Iran and Iraq, but it also controlled or influenced the greater part of Central Asia Afghanistan, Tukremenestan, Uzbekestan, Caucasus Republic of Azerbijan, Armenia and Georgia and the Near East Syria, Arabia, Persian Gulf Arab states, Israel and Egypt.

The Digital Archive of Brief notes Iran Review DABIR is an open access, peerreviewed online journal published by the Dr. Samuel M. Jordan Center for Persian Studies and Culture at the University of California, Irvine. DABIR aims to quickly and efficiently publish brief notes and reviews relating to the premodern world in contact with Iran and Persianate cultures. The journal accepts submissions on art history, archaeology, history, linguistics, literature, manuscript studies, numismatics, philology and religion, from Jaxartes to the Mediterranean and from the Sumerian period through to and including the Savid era BCE CE. Work dealing with later periods can be considered on request.

Jordan Center for Persian Studies Culture has recently published a new book and an audio CD by our poetinresidence, Sheida Mohamadi

Jordan Center for Persian Studies Scholar in Residence Dr. Mahmoud Omidsalar

The Samuel Jordan Center for Persian Studies and Culture, originally eslished by the School of Humanities in collaboration with the Claire Trevor School of the Arts, became a campus center in January . Dedicated to drawing on the strengths of the entire UC Irvine campus, the Center focuses on interdisciplinary research projects that bridge the arts, humanities, engineering, medicine, and the sciences.

UC Irvines Jordan Center for Persian Studies and Cultures two new publications King of the Seven Climes A History of the Ancient Iranian World BCE CE and India and Iran in the Longue Duree have been published and are now available on Amazon for purchase.


k grant funds public symposia and lectures on ancient Iranian history, Persian language and literature

Professor Touraj Daryaee, the Director of the Dr. Samuel M. Jordan Center for Persian Studies and Culture at UC Irvine, speaks about the Persian Gulf.

k grant funds public symposia and lectures on ancient Iranian history and civilization.

UCI Humanities Samuel Jordan Center for Persian Studies and Culture

UCI Ph.D. candidates receive Elah Omidyar MirDjalali Fellowships for Excellence in Persian Studies from Roshan Cultural Heritage Institute

Holder will collaborate with Jordan Center for Persian Studies Culture

A group of Iranian physicians of Kaiser Permanente came together to fund the opening of the Dr. Samuel M. Jordan Center for Persian Studies Culture library at the University of California, Irvine.

The renowned scholar of Persian epics and the Shahnameh, Dr. Mahmoud Omidsalar, is the Jordan Center for Persian Studies Scholar in Residence.

We are happy to announce the publication of Dr. Peyman Nojoumians Persian Learner series at the Jordan Center for Persian Studies at UC Irvine.

A short film by Dr. Touraj Daryaee, the Director of the Dr. Samuel M. Jordan Center for Persian Studies and Culture at UC Irvine about the history and usage of the name of the Persian Gulf.Headlipersian culturenes

persian cultureGreece culture and Persian culture

Common people or ordinary citizens of Rome, whose tribunes gained political power in struggle against the patricians

Eslished by Cyrus the Great by BCE;across northern ME into NW india;advanced iron technology;dev new religionZoroastrianism;conquered by Alexander the Great; later becomes the Sassanid Empire

Sparta and Athens two leading citystates who fought against each other in the Peloponnesian Wars, which weakened Greek citystates and left them vulnerable to outside invasion by Philip of Macedonia and later his son Alexander the Great

Three devastating conflicts between Romans and Carthaginians over political and commercial supremacy in the western Mediterranean regions fought between and BCE. The rivalry ended after Roman forces razed the city of Carthage, salted the surrounding earth to render it unfit for agriculture and settlement and forced many of the survivors into slavery

Greek art and culture merged w/ other Middle eastern forms;name derived b/c Greeks known as Hellenes; Hellenistic period saw the consolidation of Greek civ even after the political decline of the peninsula itself

Jews, Semitic, who developed st monotheistic religion w/ single God, Jehovah;Judaism served later as key basis for both Christianity and Islam

One of the most important poleis citystates of classical Greece, known for its democratic politics, commercial agriculture and skills off foreign trade

Greek philosopher, great pupil of Socrates; lived from to BCE; believed that human reason or knowledge could arrive at an understanding of what he called Forms or Ideasthe ultimate perfect reality he thought underlay nature; suggested the ideal form of government ruled by a philosopherking

Hereditary aristocrats and wealthy classes of the Roman republic who dominated Roman political and economic life, electing an assembly who selected two consuls and serving as members of the Senate, an advisory body to the consuls

Mediterranean people who developed first coined money

Written by Plato, held that the ideal state was one where either philosophers ruled as kings or kings were themselves philosophers

Sparta and Athens, Greeces two strongest citystates, cooperated to defeat a huge Persian invasion. Immediately after this period, Athens was at its cultural

Title given to Octavian after his defeat of the navy of Mark Antony in BCE; the creator of first emperor of the Roman empire

Alliance formed by several Greek poleis after the Persian war, Athens became the leader of the alliance, and other poleis contributed financial support, which went largely to the Athenian treasury

One of the most important poleis in classical Greece, located in the fertile southeastern region of the Peloponnesus; known for its oligarchic regime, austere life and commitment to military values

Greek philosopher; Platos pupil and teacher of Alexander of Macedon; believed that philosophers could rely on their senses to provide accurate information about the world and then depend on reason to sort out its mysteries; devised rigorous rules of logic as means of constructing compelling arguments

Historian refer to the age of Alexander and his successors as the Hellenistic eraan age when Greek cultural traditions expanded their influence beyond Greece itself Hellas to a much larger world

Civil war of the Greek world, fought between and BCE. Poleis were ided into two armed camps under the leadership of Athens and Sparta. Resulted in Athens unconditional surrender to Sparta, but the latter iled to achieve political unification of Greece

Aristotle foundation of Western scientific thought

Citystates of classical Greece. The term polis originally referred to a citadel or fortified site that offered refuge for local communities during times of war or other emergencies. By about BCE these sites developed into urban centers and extended their authority over surrounding regions. Poleis the plural of polis functioned as the principal centers of Greek society between and BCE

Athenian philosopher who lived from to BCE; tutor of Plato; encouraged rational reflection on moral and ethical issues; sought to reason through means of skeptical questioning of traditional ethical teachings. A jury of Athenian citizens condemned him to death for corrupting the minds of Athenian youths

Son of Philip of Macedonia who defeated the Greek citystates of Athens and Sparta, extending Macedonian Empire thru the ME, across Persia and into NW India

Developed alphabet w/ letters became predecessor of Greek and Latin alphabetsSemitic speaking people who lived between the Mediterranean and the mountains of Lebanon. By BCE they dominated trade in the Mediterranean basin. Between and BCE the Phoenicians eslished colonies in Cyprus, Sicily, Spain and North Africa

Nephew of the general Marius, and himself a reformminded general of Rome, responsible for conquest of Gaul in the s of the st century BCE; brought his army back to Rome and overthrew the republic in BCE; claimed himself a lifetime dictator in BCE but was assassinated by the wealthy elite class in BCE

Jew from Anatolia who zealously preached Christianity throughout the Roman empire; called for iniduals to observe high moral standards and to place their ith ahead of personal and mily interest; promised a glorious future existence for those who conscientiously observed the ith. He was executed by Roman authorities

Word is derived from the Greek demos the people; a direct democracy in which all citizens could participatechosen by lot, women could not participate in political activity; / of all males were not citizens because slaves or foreigners

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