the persian empirethe_persian_empire

These same tribes that had been treated with great inequality bythePersianEmpire.

Iranhas beenastatesincethecreationofthePersianempireinthesixthcenturyBC.

As a remnant ofthePersianEmpire,thecylinder is a source of pride for Iranians aroundtheworld.

BBCAn ancient artect unites Iran and the US

holy city

Another ct is that we are told that when AlexandertheGreat went out to conquerthePersianEmpire, and as r as he was concerned,to conquer everything he could reach, he carried with him a copy oftheIliad which it is alleged he put under his pillow.

Well,themost mous early on, King Croesus of Lydia,therichest man intheworld,youve heard all about him, decides it would be a nice thing to conquerthePersianEmpire, his neighbor totheeast.

InBC,Athenslay inruinsconqueredbytheseemingly unstoppablePersianEmpire.

So it wastheChineseempire,theMughalempire,thePersianempire, andtheRomanempire,theMayanempire.

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The empire was ided into twenty provinces, or satrapies, each ruled by agovernorcalled a satrap. To check the satraps, a secretary and a military official representing the King were installed in every province.

The Persian kings and nobility were Zoroastrians, a religion named after its founder Zoroaster.

Persian rmers also grew a lot of olives and raised cattle, goats and sheep. Hunting and fishing were also an important source of food. Rich Persians also enjoyed hunting wild animals.

The Persians were the first people in history to give men and women equal rights, abolish slavery andwrite thevery first human and animal bill of rights.

We owe a lot today to how we run a country to the Persian empire for it is they who created a workable structure for the empire that we us today. The Persians designed a system with such detail and the system of running the empire consisted of a sustainable system of taxation; a communication network based on good roads and efficient messagecarrying; a single language, Aramaic, used in government documents throughout the empire; and firm control in the armed forces.

The Persian Empire was created by Cyrus II, known as Cyrus the Great BC. Cyrus first defeated another Iranian people called the Medes, then in Cyrus defeated the kingdom of Lydia in what is now Turkey at the battle of Pterya and he became the ruler of most of Asia Minor. Soon afterwards Cyrus also defeated the Greek cities on the Turkish coast. In BC the Persians conquered the rich and powerful citystate of Babylon.

Farming in the Persian empire was difficult. To deal with the arid climate the Persians developed an irrigation system. They built underground canals. These irrigation tunnels were often several kilometres long. They sloped slightly so gravity moved the water.

Persian Empire, one of the most powerful empires of the ancient world, was created through a combination of leadership skills, military tactics, and efficient governance. Persia is the ancient name of Iran and was derived from the Greek word Persis.

A substantial majority of Persian society were free citizens who were not slaves; but did not enjoy the privileges of clan leaders or government bureaucrats. Inside Persian cities, free people were often merchants, craftsmen, and lower ranking government employees. Members of the free societies participated in religious observances at local temples. The temples themselves often owned agricultural and craft industries such as iles, and the local free populace were allowed to share in the temples income.

Several such milies made up the clan. Several clans made up the tribe. The Achaemenids were one clan of the Pasargadae. Intermarriage went on between milies within the same clan. The clan was the basic unit of identification.

The Persian Empire had a variety of religions and worshiped more than one god. One of these religions known as Zoroastrian what its followers claimed was the worlds first monotheistic religion developed on the Iranian plateau, though, based on the teachings of the prophet Zoroaster.

The mily was the basic social unit in Persian society. Fathers had tyrannical authority, treating their children as slaves. Marriage was a formal afir which saw grooms toasted and brides kissed. Children were much sought after as legitimate heirs and hence polygamy was encouraged.

One of the other religions was Christianity. Owing to the toleration of the Parthian Kings, Christianity kept slowly but steadily advancing in various parts of the empire. With the advent of the Sassanian dynasty A.D. , Christianity was often subjected to very severe trials. Its chief opponents were the Zoroastrian Magi and priestly schools, as well as the numerous Jews scattered through the empire.

Slavery was commonplace in Persian society. A substantial number of slaves consisted of prisoners of war captured in military campaigns.

Persian emperors of the th century BC are among the first to make a of lavish floor coverings. Carpets become one of the characteristic artforms ofpeople living on the high plateau of west Asia, from Turkey through Iran, where winters can be extremely cold.

The Persians built an efficientinfrastructureof roads and ports. They bought water to remote areas throughout the empire through the use of qanats, underground irrigation system. Darius the Great, had a canal built to link the Nile to the Red Sea an early version of the Suez Canal.

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The humaneness of the Persian rulers stemmed from the ethical religion founded by the prophet Zoroaster, who lived in the early sixth century B.C. Zoroaster sought to replace what he called the lieritualistic, idolworshiping cults and their priests with a religion centered on the sole god AhuraMazda Wise Lord.

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The worlds first public postal system was invented in the Persian Empire some , years ago.

Owing to the toleration of the Parthian Kings, Christianity kept slowly but steadily advancing in various parts of the empire. With the advent of the Sassanian dynasty, however A.D. , Christianity was often subjected to very severe trials. Its chief opponents were the Zoroastrian Magi and priestly schools, as well as the numerous Jews scattered through the empire.

Despite its brilliance the Persian Empire declined after BC. For one thing the empire suffered from its sheer , which made it difficult to control. The empire suffered a series of rebellions. It also suffered from political insility. Another ruler, Artaxerxes III, was assassinated in BC. Finally the great Persian Empire was destroyed by Alexander the Great in BC.

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The economic foundation of Persian society was agriculture. Because of the vast of the Persian Empire crops from one region were introduced to another. The most commonly grown crops were barley and wheat, but peas, lentils a form of bean mustard, garlic, onions, cucumbers, dates, apples, pomegranates, pears and apricots also were cultivated. The most common beverages were beer and wine. Rice and flax were introduced into Mesopotamia. Sesame was introduced into Egypt.

They also built in s BC the very first stadium, the Apadana. The Apadana was able to seat fifteen thousand people in it, with space left for a grand ceremony. This massive building was roofed and was a great feat of engineering for the time.

Rich Persians lived in palaces of timber, stone and brick. They had comforle upholstered furniture such as beds, couches and chairs. Tables were overlaid with gold, silver and ivory. For the ordinary people in Persia things were quite different. They lived in huts made from mud brick.anthe persian empirecientcivilisationsblog

Persian Empirethe persian empire NZ


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Persiansthe persian empire Age of Empires II

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The final Persian dynasty during the Middle Ages were the Savids. They took control of Persia in AD from the Timurids, who had already been weakened by civil wars and disputes during the preceding century. The Savids were arguably the most powerful Persian dynasty since the Sassanids and were a challenge both to the Ottoman Empire, and the Mughal Empire in India, which had been taken over from a descendant from the Timurid Dynasty.

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a name of rulers of the Sasanian Empire, Kavadh I/Kavadh II.

The lands of the Sassanids were eventually conquered by the Arabs in AD, and became part of a larger empire for a time, before a new Persian dynasty emerged in AD, the Samanids. Persian dynasties continued to come and go throughout the middle part of the Middle Ages, some of them being founded by peoples to the north of Iran, such as the Turks. The final of these dynasties, the Khwarezmid Empire, was eventually conquered in AD by the Mongols under Genghis Khan. As a result, this dynasty is represented in the Genghis Khan campaign in the game.

AlMundhir, meaning the warner, can refer to several kings of the Lakhmids or Ghassanids, Arab kingdoms in early

TheTaqi Kisra Palacerepresents the Wonder used for the Persians.

Ala adDin Tekish, the Shah of Khwarezmian Empire from to .

a name of kings of the Sasanian Empire, Yazdegerd I/Yazdegerd II/Yazdegerd III.

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The Persians feature in a number of singleplayer campaigns. InThe Age of Kings, they appear in theSaladincampaign, where they represent the crusader city ofTiberiasin the th scenario Jihad!, and make a minor appearance as aPersian Outpost, allies of the Saracens, that would eventually send reinforcement in the th scenario The Lion and the Demon.

a name of rulers of the Sasanian Empire, in early

This article is about the Persians inAge of Empires II. For the civilization inAge of Empires, seePersians Age of Empires.

Shahrukh Mirza, son of Tamerlane was the Timurid ruler of the eastern portion of the empire eslished by his ther.

are a Middle Eastern civilization based on the large number of Persian dynasties that existed throughout the Middle Ages. Although their design and description were largely inspired by the Sasanian Empire, they represent all Persian ctions that existed during the Middle Ages.

the last great king of the Sasanian Empire, reigning from to .

The city of Samarkand, the capital and cultural hub of the Khawarzm Empire, as represented in the campaign.

era the last Seljuq amir of Kerman, from until .

They were best known for their rivalry with the Roman Empire and gradual adoption of Islam following the Arab invasions. They would grow to become a major hub and center of the Islamic world, contributing much to Islamic art and culture. Like theirpredecessorin the original game, the Persians specialize in cavalry and navy.

era Hormizd III/Hormizd IV/Hormizd V/Hormizd VI.

The Persians had been fighting the Romans since the third century AD. The first dynasty during the Middle Ages, the Sassanid Empire stretched from Mesopotamia to India and from the Caspian Sea to the Persian Gulf, encompassing the modern nations of Iraq, Iran, and Afghanistan. They fought theRomans, and later theByzantines, for control of modern Syria, Turkey, Palestine, Israel, Egypt, and Arabia. The capital of the Persian Empire was Ctesiphon, called Baghdad today. This dynasty is represented in the Attila the Hun campaign in the game, as the Huns briefly tried to invade their lands.

The Taqi Kisra is all that remains of the Persians ancient capital, Ctesiphon, and is used as a common symbol of the Sassanian Persians.

Age of Empires IICivilizations Age of Empires IIMiddle Eastern civilizations,

When the Mongol Empire split up, Persian became controlled by the Ilkhanate AD, which eventually became more Persian than Mongol in culture. The Ilkhanate eventually fell apart and Iran became ided. A warlord from central Asia, known as Timur took control of Iran, with much bloodshed taking place. Eventually this dynasty took on a Persian culture.

a name of rulers of the Sasanian Empire, in early

Persians Civilization Overview Age of Empires

The Persians as a culture existed for many centuries when the Middle Ages began. It had been reassembled following the conquest byAlexanderin the fourth century BC and the subsequent breakup of his empire in later centuries.

They also appear in theGenghis Khancampaign, representingKhawarzmin the th campaign The Horde Rides West, and finally, in theBarbarossacampaign, where they represent the city ofDamascusin the final scenario, The Emperor Sleeping. InThe Conquerorpansion, thePersiansappear in the first scenario of theAttila the Huncampaign,The Scourge of God, as one of the three enemies the Huns ce.

The Persians are aCavalryoriented civilization. They have a full cavalry tech tree except forBattle Elephants and their team bonus allows them and their allies to do bonus damage to archers. For being one of the civilizations least impacted by the Dark Age, they have a bonus for Town Centers and Docks and begin with extra resources in a standard game. Their unique unit is theWar Elephant, a of veryheavy cavalry. It deals massive damage to all units and has a huge amount ofhit points, which makes it powerful in melee combat, able to take down multiple units. On the downside, the War Elephant is very slow. This, coupled with their powerful cavalry, gives them powerful offensive capabilities. However, their defenses and inntry are somewhat lacking. The War Elephant is strong against buildings, but its weaknesses aremonks, heavy siege weapons andHalberdiers. War Elephants are especially vulnerable to enemy Monks, which can easily convert them due to their inability to researchHeresy. They cannot buildFortified Wallsand their towers are mediocre. In addition they are the only civelization to be unable to research theTwoHanded SwordsmanandChampionupgrades for their inntry units.

Yaqub ibn alLayth alSafr, a Persian coppersmith, was the founder of the Safrid dynasty of Sistan.Persiansthe persian empire Age of Empires II

the persian empireAppendix The MedoPersian Empire

the persian empireAppendix The MedoPersian Empirewhy dont you subscribe to our free newsletter,

, Ralph F. Wilson. All rights reserved. A single copy of this article is free. Do not put this on a website.See legal, copyright, and reprint information.

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The massive MedoPersian Empire is a major empire on the world stage. While the NeoBabylonian Empire consisted of what we call the Fertile Crescent along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and the eastern coast of the Mediterranean the MedoPersian Empire extended north to the Black and Caspian Seas, as r east as the Indus River and as r west as part of Asia Minor.

The Persian Empire continued until it was conquered by the Greeks, under Alexander the Great about BC, when it was subsumed into the Greek Empire, which then fell to the Romans Empire about BC.

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According to the kings lists compiled from Herodotus and the Babylonian Chronicle cuneiform lets, Cyaxares reigned BC. He developed the united Median state by bringing together the Iranian tribes and conquering territory. He formed an alliance with NeoBabylonia against the Assyrians, sealed by the marriage of his daughter to Nebuchadnezzar II. The Medes were instrumental, along with Babylon and its allies, for the ll of the Assyrian Empire. Cyaxares was followed by his son Astyages as King of the Medes, reigning from to BC.

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Appendix . The MedoPersian Empireby Dr. Ralph F. Wilson

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As the NeoAssyrian Empire to BC went into decline, vassal states such as Media and Babylon, stopped paying tribute to the Assyrians, and in BC, the Medes and their allies captured the Assyrian capital of Nineveh. Free of Assyrian domination, the Medes grew their empire from their capital in Ecbatana, and extended it from northeastern Iran to the Halys River Kizilirmak River in Asia Minor presentday northcentral Turkey. Media was considered one of four major powers of the ancient Near East, along with Babylonia, Lydia, and Egypt.

During this time the Persians were one of six Iranian tribes that made up the united Median state others included the Medes, Scythians, and Parthians. In BC, Cyrus the Great, King of Persia, rebelled against his grandther, Astyages, King of the Medes, and won a decisive victory over him in BC. After this, the Medes were now subject to their close kin, the Persians, who now ruled over and expanded the MedoPersian Empire. When Cyrus conquered Babylon in BC, the Medes and the Persians took over the territory of NeoBabylonia and ruled over the largest empire so r known in the West.

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If you already have a credit balance on your account from m Gift Cards or eligible promotional codes, we will always apply the full value of such credits before charging the remaining balance to your credit card. However, even if you have sufficient credit to pay for the initial rental fee when you rent books, you must still have a valid credit card on file, that expires no earlier than days after your due date, to complete the order to cover any additional fees incurred. Currently, gift cards and promotional balances cannot be used to extend or purchase your book rental.

Will I be charged sales tax on my rental order?

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The functionality to support use of gift cards and promotional balances to extend or purchase your book rental is not currently available. However, you can use credit cards and debit cards.

The Amazon Textbooks Store allows you to shop online and buy all your books without ever leaving the comfort of your couch. We offer a variety of new, used, rental, and eTextbooks. Dont worry about selection, weve got your book needs covered for any subject from biology, chemistry, and nursing to accounting, arts, and engineering. Once youre finished with your books you can trade them in at Amazon and get up to of their value in an Amazon Gift Card.

Give it purposefill it with books, DVDs, clothes, electronics, and more.

As a courtesy to future customers, we ask that you limit your writing and highlighting to a minimal amount.

A book rented on Amazon may not be traded in through the Amazon TradeIn program unless you have first purchased it. If you have traded in a rented book without first purchasing it, you will be charged the same fees as a rental book that is not returned.

Theres a problem previewing your cart right now.

Students may be eligible for a tax exemption on books in some states.Learn more



If your book is not received with a postmark of the due date or an earlier date, we will automatically extend your book rental period by days and charge you for a day extension, and if the book is still not received with a postmark of the extension due date or an earlier date, we will charge you the purchase price as of the time of rental less any rental fees and, if applicable, extension fees already paid. Please do not ship the book to us once you have been charged the buyout price that book is yours to keep.


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Yes, when you rent books at Amazon, you may purchase the book after the first days of your rental period. Simply go to Your Account and select Textbook Rentals to view your rental library. Select the book you wish to purchase and then proceed through the checkout process.

Taxes are applied to book rentals where required by state law.Learn more

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Are you tired of paying a small fortune for your books every year? Wouldnt you rather buy cheap college books and have more money to buy that great pair of skinny jeans, eat out more often instead of heating up a frozen pizza, or just have a little more spending money? When you come to Amazon, you can save money by buying cheap new and used books and by renting books for college. You can also trade your used books for an Amazon Gift Card, whether you bought your books from us or not. By being a smart shopper and saving money on books at Amazon, youll have more cash for the things in life that cant be learned from a book.

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Extenancient persian societyt of Ancient Persia

Extenancient persian societyt of Ancient PersiaCyrus the Great, a religious man and adherent of Zoroastrianism, first came to power in Iran by overcoming his inlaws, the Medes c.

Timeline of Major Events in the History of Persia

Since all men were eligible for combat until age , manpower was not an obstacle, although to insure loyalty, the original members of this immortal fighting machine were Persians or Medes.

An Introduction to the Rulers and History of the Persian Empire

The Ancient Persians modern Iran are more miliar to us than the other empire builders of Mesopotamia or the Ancient Near East,the Sumeriansthe Babylonians, andthe Assyrians, not only because the Persians were more recent, but because they were amply described by the Greeks. Just as one man, Alexander of Macedon Alexander the Great, ultimately wore the Persians down quickly in about three years, so the Persian Empire rose to power quickly under the leadership ofCyrus the Great.

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Ancient Sources on Persian or Iranian History

Alexander the Great put an end to the Achaemenid rulers of Persia. His successors ruled the area as theSeleucids, intermarrying with native populations and covering a large, fretful area that soon broke up into isions. The Parthians gradually emerged as the next major Persian power ruling in the area.

We in the West are accustomed to seeing the Persians as the them to a Greek us. There was no Athenian democracy for the Persians, but an absolute monarchy that denied the inidual, common man his say in political life*. The most important part of the Persian army was a seemingly fearless elite fighting group of ,, who were known as The Immortals because when one was killed another would be promoted to take his place.

*Cyrusmay have been welcomed by the Jewsof Babylonia as a liberator and the U.N. in declared a cuneiform cylinder seal of the period that described the treatment of the inhabitants of the liberated Babylonia as the first human rights document.SeeCyrus Charter of Human Rights

B.C. the conquest made easy by many defectors, becoming the first ruler of the Achaemenid Empire the first of the Persian Empires. Cyrus then made peace with the Medes, and cemented the alliance by creating not just Persian, but Median subkings with the Persian titlekhshathrapavanknown as satraps to rule the provinces. He also respected area religions. Cyrus conquered the Lydians, theGreek colonieson the Aegean coast, the Parthians, and Hyrcanians. He conquered Phrygia on the south shore of the Black Sea. Cyrus set up a fortified border along the Jaxartes River in the Steppes, and in B.C., he conquered the Babylonian Empire. He eslished his capital in a cold area, Pasargadae the Greeks called it Persepolis, contrary to the wishes of the Persian aristocracy. He was killed in battle in . The successors of Cyrus conquered Egypt, Thrace, Macedonia, and spread the Persian Empire east to the Indus River.

Gill, N.S. Extent of Ancient Persia. ThoughtCo, Aug. , , m/extentofancientpersia.

Gill, N.S. , August . Extent of Ancient Persia. Retrieved from

The Life, Family, and Accomplishments of Cyrus the Great

Gill, N.S. Extent of Ancient Persia. ThoughtCo. accessed March , .

Who Were the Parthians and What Was the Extent of the Their Empire?

The Sassanids or Sassanians overcame the Parthians after a few hundred years and ruled with almost constant trouble on their eastern borders as well as to the west, where the Romans contested the territory sometimes through to the fertile area of Mesopotamia modern Iraq, until the Muslim Arabs conquered the area.

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The extent of Persia varied, but at its , it extended southwards to the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean; to the east and northeast, the Indus and Oxus rivers; to the north, the Caspian Sea and Mt. Caucasus; and to the west, the Euphrates River. This territory includes desert, mountains, valleys, and pastures. At the time of the ancient Persian Wars, the Ionian Greeks and Egypt were under Persian dominion.

The Gender Roles of Persia Rome Teotiancient persian societyhuacan and Maya BCE CE

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Women supervised domestic chores and had a say in her childrens marriage partners and took care of some financial afirs.

Both men and women performed religious rituals By Caroline Shanahan, Veronica Mierzejewski, Jordan Morgan, and James Vogel Compare and Contrast *Women were involved in religion in both the Persian and the Teotihuacan/Maya civilizations. In Persia, they could be priestesses, and in Mesoamerica they participated in religious rituals along with men.

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The Unit II Classical Civilizations Group Activity

During rd and nd centuries BCE, Roman expansion in Mediterranean allowed women to possess a lot of property. Rome Maya and Teotihuacan Gender Roles in Persia, Rome, Teotihuacan and Maya B.C.E. C.E. Women tended to their own domesticated animals.

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Women could be prominent urban residents as priestesses.

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*In Persia and Mesoamerica, women were responsible for weaving iles. In Rome, however, women tended to domestic chores in their households. Similarities DifferencesFull transcriptMore presentations byVeronica MierzejewskiThe Industrial Revolution New Sources O…

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*In all three civilizations, women had the potential to be prominent iniduals in their societies. In Persia, they could be priestesses. In Rome, they could own a lot of property. In Mesoamerica, they partook in religious observances. *Women in Classical Rome most likely had more rights than women in Persia and Teotihuacan/Maya. In Rome, they could own property and take care of their milys financial afirs.

It was a patriarchal society. Men were imperial bureaucrats and clan warriors, both groups being leaders. Women were not involved in government. Persia Eldest male ruled the household and arranged marriages for his children. They were called pater milias.

*All of these civilizations were patriarchal societies. The men in Persia led the empire as imperial bureaucrats, the men in Rome headed their milies as pater milias, and the men in Mesoamerica held public positions that ran their tribes.

Women wove iles and upper class women could dye them.

There was strict enforcement on laws preventing women to get an inheritance, but they found ways to evade the law.

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Women could be employed by temple and imperial workshops in the ile business. In return for their work, they received grain, wine, beer, and meat from employers.The Gender Roles of Persia Rome Teotiancient persian societyhuacan and Maya BCE CE

ancient persian societyPersian Dance and its forgotten history

In this summary article I have chosen to spotlight seven different eras, from the prehistoric cult of Mithra until the present, which have included decisive events and episodes for developments, but also destructions of this art form. The rise of the new millennium undoubtedly implies a new productive period for Persian dance, as the Iranian society and the new generation of Iran move toward an era of enlightenment.

The most significant bases for researching around the ancient Persian dance can be found in the Greek historian from Halikarnassos, Herodotos superb work Nine Books. He describes the old history of Asian empires and Persian wars until BC.

Contemporary history writers of our time, such as the French historian and professor Pierre Briant, has convincingly certified in his master piece LHistoire de lEmpire Achemenid that dancing has been an important part of the religious worship among Achaemenians and in the ith of Zoroastrianism another Persian religion that is still practiced all over the world.

The most important ritual in this cult has been the worship of Mithra, as he is sacrificing a bull. This act was believed to promote the vigour of life. The consecration to this belief was accomplished among other rites through the baptism in the blood of a bull, followed by a ritual dance performed only by men. This ceremonial act is considered as the earliest known form of Iranian dance, and the origin of the magic dance of the antique civilisations. It is typical for sacred Persic Persian dance, so called Danse Persique Sacre.

Ketzias has specifically mentioned a sort of Persian dance, which was performed in connection with the ceremonies of Mithrakana Mehrgan in which even the King participated. The King in India never appears if he is drunk. But unlike him in Persia, the Emperor drinks precious wine and devotes himself to the Persic dance during the ceremonies arranged in honor of Mithra. Douris from Samos reports about the same royal tradition Only in one occasion the King drinks wine and dances Persic dance and it is when worshipping Mithra.

The origin and rise of Persian dance as an independent and distinctive art form is estimated to be parallel with the birth of Mithraism and its spread. This cult centrally revolves around the ancient Persias sun and light God, Mithra, who is the main figure in this mystery religion that during the late antique era spread over the entire Roman Empire. Numerous temples and depictions of the legendary Mithra have been located and excavated in the three continents of the ancient world; Asia, Africa and Europe. The latest discovery has been done in London as late as .

Another Greek historian, Polukleitos, reports that at the marriage of Alexander the Great with the Persian woman Roxana in Susa, which continued in five days, he was amused by Greek musicians, singers and dancers who were engaged at the Persian Imperial Court.

This cultural exchange has been described as one of the distinctive characteristics of ancient Persian culture, which gave rise to the term of acculturation, meaning the acceptance of new cultures. This was an evident quality for the legitimation and survival of an empire that ruled over numerous nations, from Egypt in North Africa, to India in Far East. It was the worlds first religiously tolerant empire and consisted of a multitude of different languages, races, religions and cultures.

In several occasions he has indicated and in detail described the cultural and social habits of Persians. He has mentioned the wide cultural exchange that Persians had with the ancient world. From every corner of the known antique world, the most appreciated artists were imported to the imperial court in order to practice their artistic abilities in the presence of the majestic Emperor and his court.

The several thousand years of Iranian history is characterized by great events that influenced important parts of the world and its civilization. It ranges over eras of grandeur but also over painful and absurd periods of defeat and destruction.

. According to the Greek s, there have been detailed descriptions for different forms of dancing, like fire dance, sword dance and even horse dance, which meant dancing while riding on horseback.

Professor Briant quotes Xenophon, the antique writer of the Cyropedie a biographical depiction of the first Achaemenian Emperors life, Cyrus the Great When Cyrus was devoted to the traditional sacrificing rituals in Pars Persia he commanded the Persians to perform a dance, which was influenced by the customs of their ancestors Kata ta patria.

… the man from Mysie performed a Persic dance by clashing his shields together, bending himself forward and rising up again. He did all that harmonically and proportionally to the rhythm of the flute.

This article is a prelude to an exhaustive research work about the history of Persian dance and is intended to expose this national art form. The forgotten history of Persian dance is the story of a world heritage, which has to be given a new birth.

It is the irony of history that ever since the revolution in , this art form has been prohibited in the same country that once upon a time performed a central role for its expansion and advancement.

The cultural exchange with the ancient civilizations, particularly with Egypt and Greece has been extensive and proceeded during several centuries. In various works by Greek historians Persian dance masters choreographs and pedagogues have been mentioned as they have appeared in antique Greece, and Greek sportsmen, poets and dancers have been sent to the Persian Empire.

By virtue of these bases, Iran can be considered as one of the ancient worlds empires, which methodically and actively was devoted to the development of the art of dance. For this ancient nation, dancing has been an important social phenomenon and a religious ritual.

, the first ruling dynasty of the Persian Empire, contained several enthusiastic emperors who encouraged the advancement of different art forms. Ketzias, another Greek historian writes about the popular and talented female dancer, Zenon from Crete, who was Artaxerxs IIs Ardeshir Shah II court dancer and the apple of the Kings eye.

The importance of the art of dance among Persians can clearly be viewed relatively numerous Greek history books. Different forms of dance have existed as they were performed on ceremonial, ritual or entertaining occasions. For acquainting their horses with the tumultous scenes of war, the Persians used to execute a military dance, which meant that in a collective arrangement, clashing the weapons together rhythmically and dancing with their horses.

Xenophon emphas that this kind of Persic Dance Danse Persique has been very usual and as popular as riding because Persic Dance, like a sport, strengthens the muscles!

ersian dance history is characterized by many scinating and also tragic incidents. It seems to be completely unknown to the outside world, partly because of the present political situation of the country that has toned down the interest for a profound research effort. The other reason is the current archaeological discoveries and excavations in Iran, during the past thirty years. They have made it possible to have access to material and evidence for the origin of Persian dance, ever since the appearance of the cult of Mithra about two thousand years before our calendar.

Dancing was a welldeveloped and protected art form during the existence of other dynasties of Persian Empire, for instance

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